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|<<||Selected anniversaries for September||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2019 day arrangement
- 1529 – Sancti Spiritu, the first European settlement in Argentina, was destroyed by Amerindians.
- 1862 – American Civil War: Confederate forces attacked retreating Union Army troops at the Battle of Chantilly during a rainstorm in Chantilly, Virginia, but the fighting ended up being tactically inconclusive.
- 1902 – The first science fiction film, titled A Trip to the Moon (scene pictured) and based on From the Earth to the Moon by Jules Verne, was released in France.
- 1914 – The passenger pigeon, which once numbered in the billions, became extinct when the last individual died in captivity.
- 1972 – American chess grandmaster Bobby Fischer became the 11th World Chess Champion when he defeated Russian Boris Spassky in a match that was widely publicized as a Cold War confrontation.
- 1792 – French Revolution: Due to an overwhelming fear that foreign armies would attack Paris and prisoners would revolt, the summary executions of over a thousand people began.
- 1885 – White miners in Rock Springs, Wyoming, U.S., attacked Chinese immigrants, killing at least 28 Chinese miners and causing approximately $150,000 in property damage.
- 1967 – Paddy Roy Bates proclaimed HM Fort Roughs, a former World War II Maunsell Sea Fort in the North Sea off the coast of Suffolk, England, as an independent sovereign state: the Principality of Sealand (pictured).
- 1998 – A fire on Swissair Flight 111, en route from New York City to Geneva, caused the aircraft to crash into the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 229 people on board.
- 863 – Arab–Byzantine wars: The Byzantine Empire decisively defeated the Emirate of Melitene in the Battle of Lalakaon, beginning the era of Byzantine ascendancy.
- 1901 – The National Flag of Australia, a Blue Ensign defaced with the Commonwealth Star and the Southern Cross, flew for the first time atop the Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne.
- 1918 – The Bolshevik government of Russia published the first official announcement of the Red Terror, a period of repression against political opponents.
- 1950 – Winning the Italian Grand Prix, Giuseppe Farina (pictured) became the first Formula One world champion.
- 1991 – A fire killed 25 people locked inside a burning chicken processing plant in Hamlet, North Carolina, U.S.
- 929 – At the Battle of Lenzen, the Saxon army killed or captured all of the Slavs defending the fortified stronghold of Lenzen.
- 1812 – War of 1812: A coalition of Native American tribes began the Siege of Fort Harrison in Terre Haute, Indiana, by setting the fort on fire.
- 1843 – Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies and Pedro II of Brazil (both pictured) held an extravagant wedding at a cathedral in Rio de Janeiro.
- 1912 – The Albanian revolt of 1912 came to an end when the Ottoman government agreed to meet most of the rebels' demands.
- 1998 – Larry Page and Sergey Brin founded Google in Menlo Park, California, to promote the web search engine that they developed as Stanford University students.
- 1697 – War of the Grand Alliance: A French warship captured York Factory, a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company in present-day Manitoba, Canada.
- 1882 – A group of London school boys led by Bobby Buckle founded Hotspur Football Club so they could continue to play sports during the winter months.
- 1943 – World War II: American and Australian airborne forces made a landing at Nadzab as part of the New Guinea campaign against Japan.
- 1975 – Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme (pictured), a devotee of Charles Manson, attempted to assassinate U.S. President Gerald Ford.
- 1977 – NASA launched the robotic space probe Voyager 1, currently the farthest spacecraft from Earth.
- 1781 – American Revolutionary War: General Benedict Arnold led British forces to victory in the Battle of Groton Heights.
- 1916 – The first self-service grocery store, Piggly Wiggly (pictured), was founded in Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
- 1944 – World War II: Soviet forces captured the city of Tartu on their way to re-establishing their rule in Estonia.
- 1970 – The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine hijacked four jet aircraft, landing two of them at Dawson's Field in Zarqa, Jordan, and one in Beirut, with the last hijacking attempt foiled.
- 1997 – An estimated 2.5 billion people worldwide watched the funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales on television.
- 1159 – Pope Alexander III was chosen as the successor of Pope Adrian IV in a disputed election.
- 1652 – Chinese peasants on Formosa (now Taiwan) began a rebellion against Dutch rule before being suppressed four days later.
- 1927 – American inventor Philo Farnsworth (pictured) transmitted the first images using his all-electronic television system.
- 1984 – An explosion on board a Maltese patrol boat that was disposing of illegal fireworks at sea off Gozo killed seven soldiers and policemen.
- 2011 – Yak-Service Flight 9633, carrying the players and coaching staff of the Lokomotiv Yaroslavl professional ice hockey team, crashed near the Russian city of Yaroslavl, killing all but one of those aboard.
- 1775 – Priests on Malta rebelled against the Order of Saint John, but their rebellion was suppressed in a few hours.
- 1860 – The paddle steamer Lady Elgin was rammed by a schooner on Lake Michigan and sank, resulting in the loss of about 300 lives.
- 1954 – Eight nations signed an agreement to create the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, a Southeast Asian version of NATO.
- 1966 – Queen Elizabeth II opened the Severn Bridge (pictured), hailing it as the dawn of a new economic era for South Wales.
- 1978 – Iranian Revolution: After the government of the Shah of Iran declared martial law in response to protests, the Iranian Army shot and killed at least 88 demonstrators in Tehran on Black Friday.
- 337 – After disposing of all relatives who possibly held a claim to the throne, Constantine II, Constantius II (bust pictured), and Constans became Roman co-emperors.
- 1493 – Ottoman wars in Europe: At the Battle of Krbava Field, a large Croatian army intercepted an Ottoman force returning to the Sanjak of Bosnia, but was defeated.
- 1739 – The Stono Rebellion, at the time the largest slave rebellion in the Thirteen Colonies of British America, erupted near Charleston, South Carolina.
- 1954 – The 6.7 Mw Chlef earthquake struck Algeria, leaving at least 1,243 people dead and 5,000 injured, and forced the government to implement comprehensive reforms in building codes.
- 2001 – Ahmad Shah Massoud, leader of the Northern Alliance, was assassinated in Afghanistan.
- 1570 – A party of ten Jesuit missionaries landed on the Virginia Peninsula to establish the short-lived Ajacán Mission.
- 1897 – A sheriff's posse fired upon a peaceful labor demonstration made up of mostly Polish and Slovak anthracite coal miners in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, U.S., killing 19 people and wounding many others.
- 1945 – Mike the Headless Chicken was decapitated on a farm in Colorado; he survived another 18 months as part of sideshows before choking to death in Phoenix, Arizona.
- 1961 – At the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, German driver Wolfgang von Trips's car collided with another, causing it to become airborne and crash into a side barrier, killing him and 15 spectators.
- 2008 – CERN's Large Hadron Collider (section pictured), the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator, was first powered up beneath the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva.
- 1758 – Seven Years' War: France repelled an invasion attempt by the British in the Battle of Saint Cast.
- 1893 – On the opening day of the first Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago, Swami Vivekananda (pictured) introduced Hinduism to the United States.
- 1914 – During the First World War, the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force invaded German New Guinea, winning the Battle of Bita Paka.
- 1978 – Janet Parker, a British medical photographer, became the last recorded person to die from smallpox, leading to a debate on whether the virus should be preserved.
- 2001 – Al-Qaeda used four hijacked passenger airliners to carry out a series of suicide attacks against targets in New York City and the Washington, D.C., area.
- 379 – Yax Nuun Ahiin I took the throne as ajaw of the Mayan city of Tikal.
- 1848 – Switzerland became a federal state with the adoption of a new constitution.
- 1928 – The Okeechobee hurricane first struck the island of Guadeloupe; eventually it reached the United States and caused over 4,000 deaths overall.
- 1977 – South African anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko died after being beaten in police custody in Port Elizabeth.
- 2008 – A Metrolink train collided head-on with a freight train (damage pictured) in Los Angeles, California, resulting in 25 deaths and 135 injuries; the Metrolink driver had passed through a red signal, having likely been distracted by text messaging.
- 1541 – After three years of exile, John Calvin (pictured) returned to Geneva to reform the church under a body of doctrine that came to be known as Calvinism.
- 1848 – An explosion drove an iron rod through the head of railroad foreman Phineas Gage, making him an important early case of personality change after brain injury.
- 1964 – South Vietnamese Generals Lâm Văn Phát and Dương Văn Đức staged a coup attempt after junta leader Nguyễn Khánh demoted them.
- 1988 – Hurricane Gilbert reached a minimum pressure of 888 mb (26.22 inHg) with sustained flight-level winds of 185 mph (295 km/h), making it the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record at the time.
- 2008 – Five bomb blasts took place within a span of a few minutes in Delhi, India, one terrorist attack in a series committed by the Indian Mujahideen.
- AD 81 – Domitian, the last Flavian emperor of Rome, was confirmed by the Senate to succeed his brother Titus.
- 1752 – In adopting the Gregorian calendar under the terms of the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, the British Empire skipped eleven days, with September 2 being followed directly by September 14.
- 1914 – HMAS AE1 (pictured), the Royal Australian Navy's first submarine, was lost at sea; its wreck was not found until 2017.
- 1940 – The Hungarian Army indiscriminately killed at least 150 ethnic Romanians in Ipp, Transylvania, after rumors spread that Romanians were responsible for the recent deaths of two soldiers.
- 2015 – Physicists of the LIGO and Virgo projects first observed gravitational waves, the existence of which was predicted by Henri Poincaré in 1905.
- 1440 – French knight Gilles de Rais, one of the earliest known serial killers, was taken into custody upon an accusation brought against him by the Bishop of Nantes.
- 1821 – The Province of Guatemala proclaimed the independence of Central America from the Spanish Empire.
- 1916 – Tanks, the "secret weapons" of the British Army during the First World War (Mark I tank pictured), were first used in combat at the Battle of Flers–Courcelette in Somme, Picardy, France.
- 1944 – World War II: Following the Greek People's Liberation Army victory in the Battle of Meligalas, more than 700 prisoners of war and about 50 civilians were massacred.
- 2008 – Financial crisis of 2007–2008: The global financial services firm Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy while holding over $600 billion in assets, the largest such filing in U.S. history.
- 1920 – A bomb in a horse wagon exploded (aftermath pictured) in front of the J. P. Morgan building in New York City, killing 38 people and injuring several hundred others.
- 1940 – Second World War: Italy captured the town of Sidi Barrani, but its invasion of Egypt progressed no further.
- 1961 – Typhoon Nancy, with possibly the strongest winds ever measured in a tropical cyclone, made initial landfall in Muroto, Kōchi, Japan, having decreased in intensity.
- 1982 – A Lebanese militia under the direct command of Elie Hobeika carried out a massacre in the Palestinian refugee camp of Sabra and Shatila, killing at least 460 civilians.
- 1990 – Construction of the Northern Xinjiang railway was completed between Ürümqi South and Alashankou stations, linking the railway lines of China and Kazakhstan, and adding a sizable portion to the Eurasian Land Bridge.
- 1176 – Byzantine–Seljuq wars: The Seljuq Turks prevented the Byzantines from taking the interior of Anatolia at the Battle of Myriokephalon in Phrygia.
- 1775 – American Revolutionary War: The Continental Army under Richard Montgomery began the Siege of Fort St. Jean in the British province of Quebec.
- 1859 – Disgruntled with the legal and political structures of the United States, Joshua Norton (pictured) distributed letters to various newspapers in San Francisco, proclaiming himself Emperor Norton.
- 1914 – Andrew Fisher, whose previous term as Prime Minister of Australia oversaw a period of reform unmatched in the Commonwealth until the 1940s, became Prime Minister for the third time.
- 1980 – Solidarity, a Polish trade union, was founded as the first independent labor union in a Soviet-bloc country.
- 1850 – The United States Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act, which decreed that all runaway slaves be brought back to their masters.
- 1879 – The Blackpool Illuminations (example pictured) in the English seaside town of Blackpool were switched on for the first time.
- 1918 – World War I: The Central Powers' defeat in the Battle of Dobro Pole played a role in the Bulgarian withdrawal from the war and opened the way for the subsequent liberation of Vardar Macedonia.
- 1974 – Hurricane Fifi struck Honduras, destroying 182 towns and villages in the first 24 hours, and ultimately causing over 8,000 deaths.
- 2001 – Five letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to various media outlets in the United States.
- 1356 – Hundred Years' War: English forces led by Edward the Black Prince decisively won the Battle of Poitiers and captured King John II of France.
- 1692 – Salem witch trials: As Giles Corey was being crushed to death for refusing to enter a plea to charges of witchcraft, he reportedly kept telling officials, "More weight!"
- 1940 – Polish resistance leader Witold Pilecki (pictured) allowed himself to be captured by German forces and sent to the Auschwitz concentration camp in order to gather intelligence.
- 1970 – The first Glastonbury Festival, the largest greenfield festival in the world, was held at Michael Eavis's farm in Glastonbury, England.
- 1982 –
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- 1260 – The second of two major uprisings by the Old Prussian tribe of Balts began against the Teutonic Knights.
- 1498 – A tsunami caused by the Nankai earthquake washed away the building housing the statue of the Great Buddha (pictured) at Kōtoku-in in Kamakura, Japan.
- 1906 – The ocean liner RMS Mauretania, the largest and fastest ship in the world at the time, was launched.
- 1943 – World War II: Australian troops defeated Imperial Japanese forces at the Battle of Kaiapit in New Guinea.
- 2008 – An explosive-laden truck detonated in front of the Marriott hotel in Islamabad, Pakistan, killing 54 people and injuring 266 others.
- 1823 – According to Joseph Smith Jr., he was first visited by the Angel Moroni (pictured), who would guide him to the golden plates that became the basis of the Book of Mormon.
- 1938 – The Great New England Hurricane made landfall on Long Island, New York, killing an estimated 682 people and injuring 1,754 others.
- 1943 – Second World War: The German Army began the Massacre of the Acqui Division on the Greek island of Cephalonia, executing 5,155 Italian soldiers by 26 September.
- 1965 – Portugal accepted a Rhodesian mission in Lisbon despite objections by Britain, which had required its colony to implement democratic majority rule as a condition of independence.
- 2013 – Unidentified gunmen began a three-day attack on the upmarket Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya, resulting in the deaths of 67 people with at least another 175 wounded.
- 1499 – The Swabian War between the Old Swiss Confederacy and the House of Habsburg came to a close with the signing of the Treaty of Basel.
- 1869 – Das Rheingold, the first of four operas in Der Ring des Nibelungen by German composer Richard Wagner (pictured), was first performed in Munich.
- 1948 – Led by Gail Halvorsen, the U.S. Army Air Forces began Operation "Little Vittles", delivering candy to children as part of the Berlin Airlift.
- 1965 – The United Nations Security Council unanimously passed a resolution calling for an unconditional ceasefire in the Indo-Pakistani War.
- 1993 – A tugboat towing a barge collided with a rail bridge in Mobile, Alabama, U.S., deforming the tracks and causing the derailment of a passenger train eight minutes later, which killed 47 people and injured an additional 103.
- 1568 – Anglo-Spanish War: At San Juan de Ulúa (in what is now Veracruz, Mexico), Spanish naval forces forced English privateers to halt their illegal trade.
- 1803 – Maratha troops were defeated by British forces at the Battle of Assaye, one of the decisive battles of the Second Anglo-Maratha War.
- 1868 – Ramón Emeterio Betances (pictured) led the Grito de Lares, a revolt against Spanish rule in Puerto Rico.
- 1952 – U.S. vice-presidential candidate Richard Nixon delivered the "Checkers speech", one of the first political uses of television to appeal directly to the populace.
- 2008 – A gunman shot and killed ten students at Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences in Kauhajoki, Western Finland, before committing suicide.
- 1645 – English Civil War: Royalists under the personal command of King Charles I suffered a significant defeat in the Battle of Rowton Heath.
- 1869 – Jay Gould, James Fisk and other speculators plotted but failed to control the gold market in the U.S., causing gold prices to plummet on "Black Friday".
- 1903 – Alfred Deakin (pictured) became the second Prime Minister of Australia, succeeding Edmund Barton who left office to become a founding Justice of the High Court of Australia.
- 1964 – The Warren Commission released its report to the U.S. president, concluding that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. The report was made public three days later.
- 1975 – Dougal Haston and Doug Scott on the Southwest Face expedition became the first people to reach the summit of Mount Everest by ascending one of its faces.
- 275 – After the assassination of Aurelian, Tacitus was chosen by the Senate to succeed him as Roman emperor.
- 1790 – Peking opera (modern performer pictured) was born when the Four Great Anhui Troupes introduced Anhui opera to Beijing in honor of the Qianlong Emperor's eightieth birthday.
- 1944 – Second World War: British troops began their withdrawal from the Battle of Arnhem in the Netherlands, ending the Allies' Operation Market Garden in defeat.
- 1977 – About 4,200 people took part in the first modern Chicago Marathon.
- 1990 – The Ram Rath Yatra, a political-religious march organised to erect a temple to the Hindu deity Rama on the site of the Babri Masjid, began in the Indian state of Gujarat.
- 1493 – Pope Alexander VI issued the papal bull Dudum siquidem, the last of the Bulls of Donation, marking the beginning of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
- 1687 – The Parthenon in Athens was partially destroyed (ruins pictured) during an armed conflict between the Venetians under Francesco Morosini and Ottoman forces.
- 1907 – The British Colony of New Zealand officially became a dominion to reflect its political independence since the 1850s.
- 1983 – The racing yacht Australia II, captained by John Bertrand, won the America's Cup, ending the New York Yacht Club's 132-year defense of the trophy.
- 2008 – Swiss pilot and inventor Yves Rossy flew a wingpack powered by jet engines across the English Channel.
- 1825 – Locomotion No. 1 hauled the train on the opening day of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, the first public railway in the world to use steam locomotives.
- 1854 – The paddle steamer SS Arctic sank after a collision with SS Vesta 50 miles (80 km) off the coast of Newfoundland, killing approximately 320 people.
- 1930 – With his victory in the United States Amateur Championship, Bobby Jones became the only person to complete a Grand Slam in golf.
- 1964 – The British Aircraft Corporation TSR-2, an advanced Cold War tactical strike and reconnaissance aircraft that was later cancelled, made its maiden flight.
- 1988 – Led by pro-democracy activist Aung San Suu Kyi (pictured), the political party National League for Democracy was founded in Burma.
- 1066 – William the Conqueror and his fleet of around 600 ships landed at Pevensey, Sussex, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
- 1821 – The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire from Spain was drafted in the National Palace in Mexico City.
- 1924 – A team of U.S. Army Air Service aviators landed in Seattle, Washington, to complete the first aerial circumnavigation of the world (one of the aircraft pictured).
- 1978 – Pope John Paul I died only 33 days after his papal election due to an apparent myocardial infarction, resulting in the first year of three popes since 1605.
- 2008 – SpaceX's Falcon 1 rocket achieved orbit on its fourth attempt to become the first successful liquid-propelled orbital launch vehicle developed with private funding.
- 1918 – World War I: The Battle of St Quentin Canal took place, which led to the British Fourth Army making the first breach of the German defensive Hindenburg Line.
- 1938 – At a conference in Munich, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Neville Chamberlain, and Édouard Daladier reached a settlement, signing it at about 1:30 a.m. the next day, stipulating that Czechoslovakia must cede the Sudetenland to Germany.
- 1954 – Willie Mays (pictured) of Major League Baseball's New York Giants made one of the most famous defensive plays in baseball history, known as "The Catch".
- 1991 – The Haitian Army deposed President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, eight months after the nation's first democratic elections.
- 2006 – Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907 collided in mid-air with an Embraer Legacy business jet near Peixoto de Azevedo, Mato Grosso, Brazil, killing 154 people, and triggering a Brazilian aviation crisis.
- 1551 – Sue Takafusa, a military leader for the Ōuchi clan in western Japan, led a coup against daimyō Ōuchi Yoshitaka, leading to the latter's forced suicide.
- 1882 – The Vulcan Street Plant, the first hydroelectric central station to serve a system of private and commercial customers in North America, went on line in Appleton, Wisconsin, U.S.
- 1939 – Second World War: General Władysław Sikorski (pictured) became Prime Minister of the Polish government-in-exile.
- 1965 – Members of the 30 September Movement attempted a coup against the Indonesian government, which was crushed by the military under Suharto, leading to a mass anti-communist purge with more than 500,000 people killed over the following months.
- 1998 – The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), a nonprofit organization that manages the assignment of domain names and IP addresses in the Internet, was incorporated.