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|<<||Selected anniversaries for July||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2019 day arrangement
- 1520 – Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire: Conquistadors led by Hernán Cortés were nearly annihilated in the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, and barely escaped by night.
- 1867 – As per the British North America Act, the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia joined into confederation to create the modern nation of Canada.
- 1935 – The first Grant Park Music Festival, the United States' only annual free outdoor classical music concert series, was held in Chicago's Grant Park.
- 1979 – Sony introduced the Walkman portable audio player (pictured), changing music listening habits by allowing people to listen to their own choice of music on the move.
- 1999 – Legislative governance of Scotland was transferred from the Scottish Office in Westminster to the Scottish Parliament.
- 626 – During the Xuanwu Gate Incident, Prince Li Shimin led his forces to assassinate his rival brothers in a coup for the imperial throne of the Tang dynasty.
- 1816 – The French frigate Méduse ran aground off the coast of today's Mauritania, with the survivors escaping on a makeshift raft, which was depicted in Théodore Géricault's painting The Raft of the Medusa (pictured).
- 1962 – The first Walmart store, now the largest company in the world by revenue, opened in Rogers, Arkansas, U.S.
- 1976 – More than a year after the end of the Vietnam War, North and South Vietnam officially united under communist rule to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
- 2013 – The International Astronomical Union announced that the fourth and fifth moons of Pluto would be named Kerberos and Styx respectively.
- 324 – Roman emperor Constantine the Great defeated former colleague Licinius in the Battle of Adrianople.
- 1778 – American Revolutionary War: Loyalists and Iroquois killed over 300 Patriots at the Battle of Wyoming in Pennsylvania.
- 1940 – Second World War: The Royal Navy attacked the French fleet, fearing that the ships would fall into German hands after the armistice between those two nations.
- 1970 – The Troubles: The British Army imposed the Falls Curfew on Belfast, Northern Ireland, which resulted in greater Irish republican resistance.
- 1979 – U.S. President Jimmy Carter (pictured) signed a presidential finding, authorizing the CIA to secretly aid the mujahideen of Afghanistan against the Soviet Union.
- 2005 – Same-sex marriage became legal in Spain.
- 1187 – Saladin defeated Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin and captured the True Cross.
- 1610 – Polish–Muscovite War: The outnumbered forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth defeated the Tsardom of Russia at the Battle of Klushino.
- 1945 – The Brazilian cruiser Bahia (pictured) was accidentally sunk by one of its own crewmen, killing more than 300 and leaving the rest adrift in shark-infested waters.
- 1954 – Four CIA officers arrived in Guatemala to begin Operation PBHistory in an attempt to justify the United States' overthrow of President Jacobo Árbenz one week prior.
- 1988 – Kylie Minogue's first album, Kylie, was released, going on to top the charts in the UK, New Zealand, and Japan.
- 1594 – The Portuguese governor of Ceylon, Pedro Lopes de Sousa, began a failed attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Kandy.
- 1934 – Police in San Francisco opened fire on a crowd of longshoremen (confrontation pictured) who had been on strike for nearly two months, killing two.
- 1969 – The Rolling Stones performed at a free festival in Hyde Park, London, in front of at least a quarter of a million fans, two days after the death of founder Brian Jones.
- 2009 – A series of violent riots broke out in Ürümqi, the capital city of Xinjiang in China.
- 1560 – Scotland and England signed the Treaty of Edinburgh to formally conclude the Siege of Leith and replace the Scottish–French Auld Alliance.
- 1809 – Napoleon's French forces defeated Archduke Charles' Austrian army at the Battle of Wagram, the decisive confrontation of the War of the Fifth Coalition.
- 1919 – The Royal Air Force's R34 airship (pictured) landed in Mineola, New York, to complete the first east-to-west transatlantic crossing by an aircraft.
- 1989 – A Palestinian Islamic Jihad member carried out a suicide attack by hijacking a bus and forcing it into a ravine near Kiryat Ye'arim, Israel.
- 2009 – Jadranka Kosor became the first female prime minister of Croatia.
- 1575 – Anglo-Scottish Wars: In the last major battle between England and Scotland, a "Truce Day" at Carter Bar near Redesdale degenerated into a fight where the English side were routed.
- 1798 – Outraged by the XYZ Affair, the United States rescinded its treaties with France, resulting in the Quasi-War, an undeclared war fought entirely at sea.
- 1907 – Inspired by the Folies Bergère of Paris, American impresario Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. (pictured) staged the first of his Ziegfeld Follies.
- 1954 – After the culmination of the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état, Carlos Castillo Armas was sworn in as President of Guatemala.
- 1991 – The signing of the Brioni Agreement brought an end to the Ten-Day War between SFR Yugoslavia and Slovenia, although the Yugoslav Wars continued for years to come.
- 1283 – War of the Sicilian Vespers: An Aragonese fleet of galleys inflicted a crushing defeat on an Angevin fleet at Malta, forcing Charles I of Anjou to postpone his plan to invade Sicily.
- 1663 – King Charles II of England granted John Clarke the Rhode Island Royal Charter, described by one historian as "the grandest instrument of human liberty ever constructed".
- 1808 – Joseph Bonaparte (pictured) approved the Bayonne Statute, a royal charter intended as the basis for his rule as King of Spain during the Peninsular War.
- 1947 – After news reports of the capture of a "flying disc" by U.S. Army Air Force personnel in Roswell, New Mexico, the military stated that what was recovered was debris from an experimental high-altitude surveillance weather balloon.
- 869 – An earthquake and subsequent tsunami struck the area around Sendai, Japan, leaving sand deposits up to 4 km (2.5 mi) inland.
- 1701 – The Battle of Carpi, the first battle of the War of the Spanish Succession, took place near Legnago, Italy.
- 1790 – Russo-Swedish War: During the Second Battle of Svensksund in the Baltic Sea, the Swedish Navy captured one third of the Russian fleet.
- 1962 – The United States conducted the Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test, the largest nuclear explosion in outer space.
- 1981 – Nintendo released the arcade game Donkey Kong (pictured), which featured the debut of Mario, one of the most famous characters in video game history.
- 1519 – Zhu Chenhao declared Ming emperor Zhengde a usurper, beginning the Prince of Ning rebellion.
- 1645 – English Civil War: The Parliamentarians destroyed the last Royalist field army at the Battle of Langport, ultimately giving Parliament control of the West of England.
- 1913 – The air temperature in Furnace Creek, California, reached 134 °F (56.7 °C), the highest reading ever recorded on Earth.
- 1925 – Indian mystic and spiritual master Meher Baba (pictured) began his silence until his death in 1969, only communicating by means of an alphabet board or by unique hand gestures.
- 1941 – The Holocaust: A group of non-Jewish ethnic Poles from around the nearby area murdered hundreds of Jewish residents of Jedwabne in occupied Poland
- 1999 – The United States defeated China in the final match of the FIFA Women's World Cup, setting records in both attendance and television ratings for women's sports.
- 1302 – Flemish infantry defeated a large French army near Kortrijk at the Battle of the Golden Spurs.
- 1833 – Noongar warrior Yagan (statue pictured), wanted for leading attacks on white colonists in Western Australia, was killed, becoming a symbol of the unjust and sometimes brutal treatment of the indigenous peoples of Australia by colonial settlers.
- 1921 – Former President William Howard Taft was sworn in as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, making him the only person to ever hold both positions.
- 1943 – The bloodiest day of a massive ethnic cleansing operation took place, where units of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army attacked and burned various Polish villages in the Volhynia region of present-day Ukraine.
- 1991 – Shortly after takeoff from King Abdulaziz International Airport, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria Airways Flight 2120 caught fire and crashed, killing all 261 people on board.
- 1543 – King Henry VIII of England married Catherine Parr, his sixth and last wife, at Hampton Court Palace.
- 1801 – French Revolutionary Wars: A squadron of British Royal Navy ships of the line defeated a larger squadron of ships from the Spanish and French navies in the Strait of Gibraltar.
- 1920 – The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty was signed, with Soviet Russia agreeing to recognize an independent Lithuania.
- 1943 – World War II: German and Soviet forces engaged each other at the Battle of Prokhorovka, one of the largest tank battles in military history (German tanks pictured).
- 1979 – Rowdy fans at Comiskey Park in Chicago stormed the field during a promotional event in which a crate of disco records was blown up.
- 1793 – Charlotte Corday assassinated Jean-Paul Marat, a leader in the French Revolution, in his bathtub (painting shown), his death being one of the pretexts for the subsequent Reign of Terror.
- 1831 – Officials in Wallachia adopted the Regulamentul Organic, which engendered a period of unprecedented reforms that provided a setting for the Westernization of the local society.
- 1878 – At the conclusion of the Congress of Berlin, the major powers in Europe signed the Treaty of Berlin, redrawing the map of the Balkans.
- 1973 – Watergate scandal: Under questioning by Senate investigators, White House deputy chief of staff Alexander Butterfield revealed the existence of a secret taping system in the Oval Office.
- 2011 – Three coordinated bombings across Mumbai, India, killed 26 victims and injured 130 more.
- 1789 – French Revolution: Parisians stormed the Bastille (pictured), freeing its inmates and taking the prison's large quantities of arms and ammunition.
- 1791 – The Priestley Riots began, in which Joseph Priestley and other religious Dissenters were driven out of Birmingham, England.
- 1950 – In an early battle of the Korean War, North Korean troops began attacking the headquarters of the American 24th Infantry Division in Taejon, South Korea.
- 1965 – The NASA spacecraft Mariner 4 flew past Mars, collecting the first close-up pictures of another planet.
- 2016 – A man deliberately drove a truck into crowds in Nice, France, resulting in the deaths of 86 people.
- 1410 – The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeated the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights in the Battle of Grunwald, the decisive engagement of the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
- 1799 – French soldiers uncovered the Rosetta Stone (pictured) in Fort Julien, near the Egyptian port city of Rashid.
- 1959 – Five hundred thousand American steelworkers went on strike, closing nearly every steel mill in the country.
- 1983 – Armenian extremist organization ASALA bombed the Turkish Airlines check-in counter at Orly Airport, killing 8 and injuring 55, as part of its campaign for the recognition of and reparations for the Armenian Genocide.
- 2009 – Caspian Airlines Flight 7908 crashed in northwestern Iran, killing all 168 people aboard.
- 1232 – A local mosque elected Muhammad ibn Al-Ahmar, who later established the last Muslim state in Spain, as ruler of Arjona.
- 1931 – Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie (pictured) signed the nation's first constitution, intended to officially replace the Fetha Nagast, which had been the supreme law since the Middle Ages.
- 1945 – Manhattan Project: Trinity, the first nuclear test explosion, was carried out near Alamogordo, New Mexico.
- 1965 – South Vietnamese Colonel Phạm Ngọc Thảo—an undetected communist spy—was reported dead due to injuries sustained during his capture, but it is generally assumed he was killed on the orders of military officials.
- 2013 – At least 23 students died and dozens more fell ill at a primary school in the village of Dharmashati Gandaman in the Saran district of the Indian state of Bihar after eating a Midday Meal contaminated with pesticide.
- 1791 – French Revolution: Members of the National Guard fired into a large crowd (pictured) that was gathered at the Champ de Mars, Paris, to sign a petition demanding the removal of Louis XVI.
- 1936 – Nationalist rebels attempted a coup d'état against the Second Spanish Republic, sparking the Spanish Civil War.
- 1981 – A structural failure caused a walkway at the Hyatt Regency hotel in Kansas City, Missouri, U.S., to collapse, killing 114 people and injuring 216 others.
- 1992 – Elizabeth II officially opened the Manchester Metrolink, the first modern street-running light rail system in the United Kingdom.
- 2007 – TAM Airlines Flight 3054 crash-landed at Congonhas Airport in São Paulo, Brazil, killing 199 people, the highest death toll of any aviation accident in Brazil and the highest death toll of any accident involving an Airbus A320 airliner.
- 1841 – Pedro II, the last Emperor of Brazil, having reigned in minority since 1831, was acclaimed, crowned and consecrated.
- 1976 – At the Olympic Games in Montreal, Nadia Comăneci became the first person to score a perfect 10 in a modern Olympics gymnastics event.
- 1989 – American actress Rebecca Schaeffer (pictured) was shot and killed by Robert John Bardo, eventually prompting the passage of anti-stalking laws in California.
- 1995 – Selena's album Dreaming of You, instrumental in popularizing Tejano music, was released posthumously.
- 2012 – A suicide bomber attacked an Israeli tour bus at Burgas Airport, Bulgaria, which led the European Union to list the military branch of Hezbollah as a terrorist organization.
- AD 64 – The Great Fire of Rome started among the shops around the Circus Maximus, eventually destroying three of fourteen Roman districts and severely damaging seven others.
- 1545 – The English warship Mary Rose (pictured) sank just outside Portsmouth during the Battle of the Solent; it was raised from the seabed in 1982.
- 1848 – The two-day Women's Rights Convention, the first women's rights and feminist convention held in the United States, opened in Seneca Falls, New York.
- 1992 – A car bomb killed anti-Mafia judge Paolo Borsellino and five policemen in Palermo, Italy, less than two months after the murder of Borsellino's friend and colleague Giovanni Falcone.
- 1779 – Tekle Giyorgis I began the first of his six reigns as Emperor of Ethiopia.
- 1976 – The Viking 1 lander became the first spacecraft to successfully land on Mars and perform its mission (documentary clip shown).
- 1982 – Members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army detonated two bombs in Hyde Park and Regent's Park in London, killing 11 people, 7 horses, and wounding over 50 other people.
- 1999 – The Chinese government began a persecution campaign against Falun Gong, arresting thousands nationwide.
- 2012 – A gunman opened fire at a movie theater in Aurora, Colorado, killing 12 people and injuring 58 others.
- 230 – Pope Pontian began his pontificate, succeeding Urban I.
- 905 – Louis III, Holy Roman Emperor, was captured during his attempt to restore Carolingian power over Italy by King Berengar I and blinded.
- 1925 – American high school biology teacher John T. Scopes was found guilty of violating Tennessee's Butler Act by teaching evolution in class.
- 1969 – During the Apollo 11 mission, Buzz Aldrin (pictured) stepped out of the Lunar Module Eagle and photographed human boot-prints on the Moon.
- 1973 – Mossad agents killed a Moroccan waiter in Lillehammer, Norway, mistakenly believing he had been involved in the 1972 Munich Olympics massacre.
- 2012 – Turkish adventurer Erden Eruç became the first person in history to complete a solo human-powered circumnavigation of the Earth.
- 838 – Arab–Byzantine wars: The forces of the Abbasid Caliphate defeated Byzantine Empire troops, led by Emperor Theophilos himself, at the Battle of Anzen near present-day Dazman, Turkey.
- 1802 – Gia Long conquered Hanoi and unified modern-day Vietnam, which had experienced centuries of feudal warfare.
- 1933 – Wiley Post (pictured) became the first pilot to fly solo around the world, landing after a seven-day, nineteen-hour flight at Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn, New York City.
- 1975 – Stanley Forman took the Pulitzer Prize-winning photo Fire Escape Collapse, which spurred action to improve the safety of fire escapes across the United States.
- 2002 – The Israel Defense Forces dropped a bomb on the home of Salah Shehade, the leader of the military arm of Hamas, killing him, his family and some neighboring civilians, among them seven children.
- 1319 – A fleet led by the Knights Hospitaller sank 22 of 28 ships of the Turkish Aydınid emirate.
- 1914 – Austria-Hungary presented Serbia with an ultimatum to allow them to investigate the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which Serbia would ultimately reject, leading to World War I.
- 1927 – Wilfred Rhodes of England and Yorkshire became the only person to play in 1,000 first-class cricket matches.
- 1982 – During the filming of Twilight Zone: The Movie in Valencia, California, a helicopter crashed, killing three people and leading to new safety standards.
- 1995 – Hale–Bopp (pictured), one of the most widely observed comets of the 20th century, was discovered by two independent observers, Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp.
- 1910 – Ottoman forces captured the city of Shkodër to put down the Albanian revolt of 1910 (leader Isa Boletini pictured).
- 1959 – Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon held an impromptu debate at the opening of the American National Exhibition at Sokolniki Park in Moscow.
- 1987 – Iran–Iraq War: In opposition to the American plan to protect Kuwaiti tankers, Iran laid mines and damaged the SS Bridgeton, resulting in a propaganda victory for Iran.
- 2009 – The MV Arctic Sea, reportedly carrying timber, was allegedly boarded by hijackers off the coast of Sweden, but much speculation remains as to the actual cargo and events.
- 1139 – Prince Afonso Henriques led Portuguese troops to victory over the Almoravid Moors at the Battle of Ourique.
- 1261 – Alexios Strategopoulos led the Nicaean forces of Michael VIII Palaiologos to recapture Constantinople, re-establish the Byzantine Empire, and end the Latin Empire.
- 1898 – Spanish–American War: After over two months of sea-based bombardment, the United States invaded Puerto Rico.
- 1965 – Bob Dylan, who had previously been known for folk music, gave a controversial performance at the Newport Folk Festival playing songs with an electric guitar.
- 1969 – Vietnam War: President Richard Nixon announced that the United States would not "undertake all the defense of the free nations of the world", beginning the Vietnamization of the war.
- 2007 – Pratibha Patil (pictured) was sworn in as the first female president of India.
- 1759 – French and Indian War: Rather than defend Fort Carillon near present-day Ticonderoga, New York, from an approaching 11,000-man British force, French Brigadier General François-Charles de Bourlamaque withdrew his troops and attempted to blow up the fort.
- 1882 – Boer mercenaries declared their independence from the Transvaal Republic and established the Republic of Stellaland.
- 1936 – The Canadian National Vimy Memorial (pictured), dedicated to the Canadian Expeditionary Force members killed during the First World War, was unveiled near Vimy, Pas-de-Calais, France.
- 1953 – In Short Creek, Arizona, police conducted a mass arrest of approximately 400 Mormon fundamentalists for polygamy.
- 2009 – The militant Islamist group Boko Haram launched an attack on a Nigeria Police Force station, sparking violence across several states in northeastern Nigeria, leaving more than 1,000 people dead.
- 1054 – During his invasion of Scotland, Siward, Earl of Northumbria, defeated Macbeth, King of Scotland, in a battle north of the Firth of Forth.
- 1302 – Byzantine–Ottoman wars: The Ottoman sultanate gained its first major victory against the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Bapheus in Bithynia.
- 1919 – Red Summer: Race riots (pictured) erupted in Chicago after a racial incident occurred on a South Side beach, leading to 38 fatalities and 537 injuries.
- 1949 – The de Havilland Comet, the world's first commercial jet airliner to reach production, made its maiden flight.
- 2007 – While covering a police pursuit in Phoenix, Arizona, two news helicopters collided in mid-air, killing both crews.
- 1794 – French Revolution: Maximilien Robespierre and Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, architects of the Reign of Terror, were executed after having been arrested the previous day.
- 1866 – At the age of 18, Vinnie Ream (pictured) became the youngest artist and first woman to receive a commission from the United States government for a statue—that of Abraham Lincoln currently in the U.S. Capitol rotunda.
- 1939 – During an excavation of a ship burial at Sutton Hoo in Suffolk, England, archaeologists discovered a helmet likely belonging to King Rædwald of East Anglia.
- 2001 – At the World Aquatics Championships in Fukuoka, Japan, Australian Ian Thorpe became the first swimmer to win six gold medals at a single World Championships.
- 2010 – In the deadliest air accident in Pakistan's history, Airblue Flight 202 crashed into the Margalla Hills north of Islamabad, killing all 152 aboard.
- 1014 – Byzantine–Bulgarian wars: Forces of the Byzantine Empire defeated troops of the Bulgarian Empire at the Battle of Kleidion (pictured) in the Belasica Mountains near present-day Klyuch, Bulgaria.
- 1862 – American Civil War: Confederate spy Belle Boyd was arrested by Union forces after her lover turned her in.
- 1914 – The first shots of World War I were fired by the Austro-Hungarian river monitor SMS Bodrog upon Serbian defences near Belgrade.
- 1950 – Korean War: U.S. Army 7th Cavalry Regiment troops concluded four days of shootings of civilians, sparked by fears that columns of refugees might contain North Korean spies.
- 2010 – An overloaded passenger ferry capsized on the Kasai River in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, resulting in at least 80 deaths.
- 1676 – Virginia colonist Nathaniel Bacon and his makeshift army issued a Declaration of the People of Virginia, instigating a rebellion against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.
- 1825 – Malden Island (pictured), now one of Kiribati's Line Islands, was discovered by Captain The 7th Lord Byron.
- 1950 – Four striking workers were shot dead by the Gendarmerie in Belgium at the height of the political crisis known as the Royal Question.
- 2006 – Lebanon War: The Israeli Air Force attacked a three-story building near the Southern Lebanese village of Qana, killing at least 28 civilians, including 16 children.
- 2014 – At least 151 people were killed when heavy rains triggered a landslide in Pune district, Maharashtra, India.
- 1423 – Hundred Years' War: The English and their Burgundian allies were victorious over the French at the Battle of Cravant (pictured) near Auxerre, France.
- 1777 – The Second Continental Congress passed a resolution allowing French nobleman the Marquis de Lafayette to enter the American revolutionary forces as a major general.
- 1941 – The Holocaust: Under instructions from Adolf Hitler, Hermann Göring authorised SS General Reinhard Heydrich to handle preparations for "the Final Solution of the Jewish question".
- 1971 – Apollo program: The first Lunar Roving Vehicle was used during the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon.
- 2012 – The largest power outage in history occurred across 22 Indian states, affecting more than 620 million people, or about 9 percent of the world's population.