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|<<||Selected anniversaries for July||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2019 day arrangement
- 1520 – Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire: Conquistadors led by Hernán Cortés were nearly annihilated in the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, and barely escaped by night.
- 1867 – As per the British North America Act, the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia joined into confederation to create the modern nation of Canada.
- 1935 – The first Grant Park Music Festival, the United States' only annual free outdoor classical music concert series, was held in Chicago's Grant Park.
- 1979 – Sony introduced the Walkman portable audio player (pictured), changing music listening habits by allowing people to listen to their own choice of music on the move.
- 1999 – Legislative governance of Scotland was transferred from the Scottish Office in Westminster to the Scottish Parliament.
- 626 – During the Xuanwu Gate Incident, Prince Li Shimin led his forces to assassinate his rival brothers in a coup for the imperial throne of the Tang dynasty.
- 1816 – The French frigate Méduse ran aground off the coast of today's Mauritania, with the survivors escaping on a makeshift raft, which was depicted in Théodore Géricault's painting The Raft of the Medusa (pictured).
- 1962 – The first Walmart store, now the largest company in the world by revenue, opened in Rogers, Arkansas, U.S.
- 1976 – More than a year after the end of the Vietnam War, North and South Vietnam officially united under communist rule to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
- 2013 – The International Astronomical Union announced that the fourth and fifth moons of Pluto would be named Kerberos and Styx respectively.
- 324 – Roman emperor Constantine the Great defeated former colleague Licinius in the Battle of Adrianople.
- 1778 – American Revolutionary War: Loyalists and Iroquois killed over 300 Patriots at the Battle of Wyoming in Pennsylvania.
- 1940 – Second World War: The Royal Navy attacked the French fleet, fearing that the ships would fall into German hands after the armistice between those two nations.
- 1970 – The Troubles: The British Army imposed the Falls Curfew on Belfast, Northern Ireland, which resulted in greater Irish republican resistance.
- 1979 – U.S. President Jimmy Carter (pictured) signed a presidential finding, authorizing the CIA to secretly aid the mujahideen of Afghanistan against the Soviet Union.
- 2005 – Same-sex marriage became legal in Spain.
- 1187 – Saladin defeated Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin and captured the True Cross.
- 1610 – Polish–Muscovite War: The outnumbered forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth defeated the Tsardom of Russia at the Battle of Klushino.
- 1945 – The Brazilian cruiser Bahia (pictured) was accidentally sunk by one of its own crewmen, killing more than 300 and leaving the rest adrift in shark-infested waters.
- 1954 – Four CIA officers arrived in Guatemala to begin Operation PBHistory in an attempt to justify the United States' overthrow of President Jacobo Árbenz one week prior.
- 1988 – Kylie Minogue's first album, Kylie, was released, going on to top the charts in the UK, New Zealand, and Japan.
- 1775 – The Second Continental Congress of Britain's Thirteen Colonies adopted the Olive Branch Petition in the hopes of avoiding war with Great Britain.
- 1865 – Royal assent was given to an Act of Parliament allowing the Talyllyn Railway to carry passengers by steam haulage – the first narrow-gauge railway in Britain to do so from the start.
- 1934 – Police in San Francisco opened fire on a crowd of longshoremen (confrontation pictured) who had been on strike for nearly two months, killing two.
- 1969 – The Rolling Stones performed at a free festival in Hyde Park, London, in front of at least a quarter of a million fans, two days after the death of founder Brian Jones.
- 2009 – A series of violent riots broke out in Ürümqi, the capital city of Xinjiang in China.
- 1560 – Scotland and England signed the Treaty of Edinburgh to formally conclude the Siege of Leith and replace the Scottish–French Auld Alliance.
- 1809 – Napoleon's French forces defeated Archduke Charles' Austrian army at the Battle of Wagram, the decisive confrontation of the War of the Fifth Coalition.
- 1919 – The Royal Air Force's R34 airship (pictured) landed in Mineola, New York, to complete the first east-to-west transatlantic crossing by an aircraft.
- 1989 – A Palestinian Islamic Jihad member carried out a suicide attack by hijacking a bus and forcing it into a ravine near Kiryat Ye'arim, Israel.
- 2009 – Jadranka Kosor became the first female prime minister of Croatia.
- 1575 – Anglo-Scottish Wars: In the last major battle between England and Scotland, a "Truce Day" at Carter Bar near Redesdale degenerated into a fight where the English side were routed.
- 1798 – Outraged by the XYZ Affair, the United States rescinded its treaties with France, resulting in the Quasi-War, an undeclared war fought entirely at sea.
- 1907 – Inspired by the Folies Bergère of Paris, American impresario Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. (pictured) staged the first of his Ziegfeld Follies.
- 1954 – After the culmination of the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état, Carlos Castillo Armas was sworn in as President of Guatemala.
- 1991 – The signing of the Brioni Agreement brought an end to the Ten-Day War between SFR Yugoslavia and Slovenia, although the Yugoslav Wars continued for years to come.
- 1283 – War of the Sicilian Vespers: An Aragonese fleet of galleys inflicted a crushing defeat on an Angevin fleet at Malta, forcing Charles I of Anjou to postpone his plan to invade Sicily.
- 1663 – King Charles II of England granted John Clarke the Rhode Island Royal Charter, described by one historian as "the grandest instrument of human liberty ever constructed".
- 1808 – Joseph Bonaparte (pictured) approved the Bayonne Statute, a royal charter intended as the basis for his rule as King of Spain during the Peninsular War.
- 1947 – After news reports of the capture of a "flying disc" by U.S. Army Air Force personnel in Roswell, New Mexico, the military stated that what was recovered was debris from an experimental high-altitude surveillance weather balloon.
- 869 – An earthquake and subsequent tsunami struck the area around Sendai, Japan, leaving sand deposits up to 4 km (2.5 mi) inland.
- 1701 – The Battle of Carpi, the first battle of the War of the Spanish Succession, took place near Legnago, Italy.
- 1790 – Russo-Swedish War: During the Second Battle of Svensksund in the Baltic Sea, the Swedish Navy captured one third of the Russian fleet.
- 1962 – The United States conducted the Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test, the largest nuclear explosion in outer space.
- 1981 – Nintendo released the arcade game Donkey Kong (pictured), which featured the debut of Mario, one of the most famous characters in video game history.
- 1519 – Zhu Chenhao declared Ming emperor Zhengde a usurper, beginning the Prince of Ning rebellion.
- 1645 – English Civil War: The Parliamentarians destroyed the last Royalist field army at the Battle of Langport, ultimately giving Parliament control of the West of England.
- 1913 – The air temperature in Furnace Creek, California, reached 134 °F (56.7 °C), the highest reading ever recorded on Earth.
- 1925 – Indian mystic and spiritual master Meher Baba (pictured) began his silence until his death in 1969, only communicating by means of an alphabet board or by unique hand gestures.
- 1941 – The Holocaust: A group of non-Jewish ethnic Poles from around the nearby area murdered hundreds of Jewish residents of Jedwabne in occupied Poland
- 1999 – The United States defeated China in the final match of the FIFA Women's World Cup, setting records in both attendance and television ratings for women's sports.
- 1302 – Flemish infantry defeated a large French army near Kortrijk at the Battle of the Golden Spurs.
- 1833 – Noongar warrior Yagan (statue pictured), wanted for leading attacks on white colonists in Western Australia, was killed, becoming a symbol of the unjust and sometimes brutal treatment of the indigenous peoples of Australia by colonial settlers.
- 1921 – Former President William Howard Taft was sworn in as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, making him the only person to ever hold both positions.
- 1943 – The bloodiest day of a massive ethnic cleansing operation took place, where units of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army attacked and burned various Polish villages in the Volhynia region of present-day Ukraine.
- 1991 – Shortly after takeoff from King Abdulaziz International Airport, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria Airways Flight 2120 caught fire and crashed, killing all 261 people on board.
- 1543 – King Henry VIII of England married Catherine Parr, his sixth and last wife, at Hampton Court Palace.
- 1801 – French Revolutionary Wars: A squadron of British Royal Navy ships of the line defeated a larger squadron of ships from the Spanish and French navies in the Strait of Gibraltar.
- 1920 – The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty was signed, with Soviet Russia agreeing to recognize an independent Lithuania.
- 1943 – World War II: German and Soviet forces engaged each other at the Battle of Prokhorovka, one of the largest tank battles in military history (German tanks pictured).
- 1979 – Rowdy fans at Comiskey Park in Chicago stormed the field during a promotional event in which a crate of disco records was blown up.
- 1793 – Charlotte Corday assassinated Jean-Paul Marat, a leader in the French Revolution, in his bathtub (painting shown), his death being one of the pretexts for the subsequent Reign of Terror.
- 1831 – Officials in Wallachia adopted the Regulamentul Organic, which engendered a period of unprecedented reforms that provided a setting for the Westernization of the local society.
- 1878 – At the conclusion of the Congress of Berlin, the major powers in Europe signed the Treaty of Berlin, redrawing the map of the Balkans.
- 1973 – Watergate scandal: Under questioning by Senate investigators, White House deputy chief of staff Alexander Butterfield revealed the existence of a secret taping system in the Oval Office.
- 2011 – Three coordinated bombings across Mumbai, India, killed 26 victims and injured 130 more.
- 1789 – French Revolution: Parisians stormed the Bastille (pictured), freeing its inmates and taking the prison's large quantities of arms and ammunition.
- 1791 – The Priestley Riots began, in which Joseph Priestley and other religious Dissenters were driven out of Birmingham, England.
- 1950 – In an early battle of the Korean War, North Korean troops began attacking the headquarters of the American 24th Infantry Division in Taejon, South Korea.
- 1965 – The NASA spacecraft Mariner 4 flew past Mars, collecting the first close-up pictures of another planet.
- 2016 – A man deliberately drove a truck into crowds in Nice, France, resulting in the deaths of 86 people.
- 1410 – The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeated the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights in the Battle of Grunwald, the decisive engagement of the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
- 1799 – French soldiers uncovered the Rosetta Stone (pictured) in Fort Julien, near the Egyptian port city of Rashid.
- 1959 – Five hundred thousand American steelworkers went on strike, closing nearly every steel mill in the country.
- 1983 – Armenian extremist organization ASALA bombed the Turkish Airlines check-in counter at Orly Airport, killing 8 and injuring 55, as part of its campaign for the recognition of and reparations for the Armenian Genocide.
- 2009 – Caspian Airlines Flight 7908 crashed in northwestern Iran, killing all 168 people aboard.
- 1232 – A local mosque elected Muhammad ibn Al-Ahmar, who later established the last Muslim state in Spain, as ruler of Arjona.
- 1931 – Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie (pictured) signed the nation's first constitution, intended to officially replace the Fetha Nagast, which had been the supreme law since the Middle Ages.
- 1945 – Manhattan Project: Trinity, the first nuclear test explosion, was carried out near Alamogordo, New Mexico.
- 1965 – South Vietnamese Colonel Phạm Ngọc Thảo—an undetected communist spy—was reported dead due to injuries sustained during his capture, but it is generally assumed he was killed on the orders of military officials.
- 2013 – At least 23 students died and dozens more fell ill at a primary school in the village of Dharmashati Gandaman in the Saran district of the Indian state of Bihar after eating a Midday Meal contaminated with pesticide.
- 1791 – French Revolution: Members of the National Guard fired into a large crowd (pictured) that was gathered at the Champ de Mars, Paris, to sign a petition demanding the removal of Louis XVI.
- 1936 – Nationalist rebels attempted a coup d'état against the Second Spanish Republic, sparking the Spanish Civil War.
- 1981 – A structural failure caused a walkway at the Hyatt Regency hotel in Kansas City, Missouri, U.S., to collapse, killing 114 people and injuring 216 others.
- 1992 – Elizabeth II officially opened the Manchester Metrolink, the first modern street-running light rail system in the United Kingdom.
- 2007 – TAM Airlines Flight 3054 crash-landed at Congonhas Airport in São Paulo, Brazil, killing 199 people, the highest death toll of any aviation accident in Brazil and the highest death toll of any accident involving an Airbus A320 airliner.
- 1841 – Pedro II, the last Emperor of Brazil, having reigned in minority since 1831, was acclaimed, crowned and consecrated.
- 1976 – At the Olympic Games in Montreal, Nadia Comăneci became the first person to score a perfect 10 in a modern Olympics gymnastics event.
- 1989 – American actress Rebecca Schaeffer (pictured) was shot and killed by Robert John Bardo, eventually prompting the passage of anti-stalking laws in California.
- 1995 – Selena's album Dreaming of You, instrumental in popularizing Tejano music, was released posthumously.
- 2012 – A suicide bomber attacked an Israeli tour bus at Burgas Airport, Bulgaria, which led the European Union to list the military branch of Hezbollah as a terrorist organization.
- AD 64 – The Great Fire of Rome started among the shops around the Circus Maximus, eventually destroying three of fourteen Roman districts and severely damaging seven others.
- 1545 – The English warship Mary Rose (pictured) sank just outside Portsmouth during the Battle of the Solent; it was not rediscovered until 1971.
- 1848 – The two-day Women's Rights Convention, the first women's rights and feminist convention held in the United States, opened in Seneca Falls, New York.
- 1992 – A car bomb killed anti-Mafia judge Paolo Borsellino and five policemen in Palermo, Italy, less than two months after the murder of Borsellino's friend and colleague Giovanni Falcone.
- 1779 – Tekle Giyorgis I began the first of his six reigns as Emperor of Ethiopia.
- 1976 – The Viking 1 lander became the first spacecraft to successfully land on Mars and perform its mission (documentary clip shown).
- 1982 – Members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army detonated two bombs in Hyde Park and Regent's Park in London, killing 11 people, 7 horses, and wounding over 50 other people.
- 1999 – The Chinese government began a persecution campaign against Falun Gong, arresting thousands nationwide.
- 2012 – A gunman opened fire at a movie theater in Aurora, Colorado, killing 12 people and injuring 58 others.
- 230 – Pope Pontian began his pontificate, succeeding Urban I.
- 905 – Louis III, Holy Roman Emperor, was captured during his attempt to restore Carolingian power over Italy by King Berengar I and blinded.
- 1925 – American high school biology teacher John T. Scopes was found guilty of violating Tennessee's Butler Act by teaching evolution in class.
- 1969 – During the Apollo 11 mission, Buzz Aldrin (pictured) stepped out of the lunar module Eagle and photographed human boot-prints on the moon.
- 1973 – Mossad agents killed a Moroccan waiter in Lillehammer, Norway, mistakenly believing he had been involved in the 1972 Munich Olympics massacre.
- 2012 – Turkish adventurer Erden Eruç became the first person in history to complete a solo human-powered circumnavigation of the Earth.
- 838 – Arab–Byzantine wars: The forces of the Abbasid Caliphate defeated Byzantine Empire troops, led by Emperor Theophilos himself, at the Battle of Anzen near present-day Dazman, Turkey.
- 1793 – Scottish explorer Alexander Mackenzie inscribed his name on a rock near Dean Channel (pictured) after becoming the first recorded person to complete a transcontinental crossing of North America north of Mexico.
- 1975 – Stanley Forman took the Pulitzer Prize-winning photo Fire Escape Collapse, which spurred action to improve the safety of fire escapes across the United States.
- 1933 – Wiley Post became the first pilot to fly solo around the world, landing after a seven-day, nineteen-hour flight at Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn, New York City.
- 2002 – The Israel Defense Forces dropped a bomb on the home of Salah Shehade, the leader of the military arm of Hamas, killing him, his family and some neighboring civilian, among them seven children.
- 1829 – William Austin Burt was awarded a patent for the typographer, the first practical typewriting machine.
- 1860 – The trial in the Eastbourne manslaughter began, which became an important legal precedent in the United Kingdom for discussions of corporal punishment in schools.
- 1921 – The Communist Party of China was founded at the inaugural National Congress in Shanghai, with Chen Duxiu as its first Secretary.
- 1968 – In Cleveland, Ohio, U.S., a shootout between police and a Black Power group began, which sparked three days of rioting.
- 2001 – Megawati Sukarnoputri (pictured) became the first female president of Indonesia after the People's Consultative Assembly removed Abdurrahman Wahid.
- 1910 – Ottoman forces captured the city of Shkodër to put down the Albanian revolt of 1910.
- 1923 – The Treaty of Lausanne was signed to settle the Anatolian part of the partition of the Ottoman Empire, establishing the boundaries of modern Turkey.
- 1987 – Iran–Iraq War: In opposition to the American plan to protect Kuwaiti tankers, Iran laid mines and damaged the SS Bridgeton, resulting in a propaganda victory for Iran.
- 2009 – The MV Arctic Sea, reportedly carrying timber, was allegedly boarded by hijackers off the coast of Sweden, but much speculation remains as to the actual cargo and events.
- 306 – Constantine the Great was proclaimed Roman emperor by his troops after the death of Constantius Chlorus.
- 1861 – American Civil War: The United States Congress passed the Crittenden–Johnson Resolution, asserting that the war was solely to prevent the dissolution of the nation, although this was repealed five months later.
- 1893 – The Corinth Canal (pictured), which bisects the narrow Isthmus of Corinth, was formally opened, connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Aegean Sea's Saronic Gulf.
- 1978 – Two Puerto Rican pro-independence activists were killed in a police ambush at Cerro Maravilla in Ponce.
- 2000 – Air France Flight 4590, a Concorde en route from Paris to New York City, crashed in Gonesse, France, killing all one hundred passengers and nine crew members, as well as four people on the ground.
- 1533 – During the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, conquistador Francisco Pizarro executed the last independent emperor, Atahualpa, in Cajamarca.
- 1887 – L. L. Zamenhof published Unua Libro, the first publication to describe Esperanto, a constructed international language.
- 1918 – Emmy Noether (pictured) introduced what became known as Noether's theorem, from which conservation laws are deduced for symmetries of angular momentum, linear momentum, and energy, at Göttingen, Germany
- 1968 – In South Vietnam, after coming second to Nguyễn Văn Thiệu in a rigged presidential election in 1967, Trương Đình Dzu was jailed by a military court for illicit currency transactions.
- 2016 – In one of the most deadly crimes committed in modern Japanese history, a former employee went on a knife rampage at a care home for disabled people in Sagamihara, killing 19 people and wounding 26 others.
- 678 – Sclaveni attackers were forced to give up their siege of the Byzantine city of Thessalonica, being unable to penetrate the city's defenses.
- 1214 – Philip II of France decisively won the Battle of Bouvines, the conclusive battle of the 1213–1214 Anglo-French War.
- 1949 – The de Havilland Comet, the world's first commercial jet airliner to reach production, made its maiden flight.
- 1953 – An armistice was signed (pictured) to end hostilities in the Korean War, officially making the division of Korea indefinite by creating an approximately 4 km (2.5 mi) wide demilitarized zone across the Korean Peninsula.
- 2002 – A Ukrainian Air Force Sukhoi Su-27 aircraft crashed during an aerobatics presentation at an airshow near Lviv, Ukraine, killing 77 people and injuring over 500 others.
- 1794 – French Revolution: Maximilien Robespierre and Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, architects of the Reign of Terror, were executed after having been arrested the previous day.
- 1821 – Peruvian War of Independence: Argentine general José de San Martín declared the independence of Peru from Spain.
- 1939 – During an excavation of a ship burial at Sutton Hoo in Suffolk, England, archæologists discovered a helmet (pictured) likely belonging to King Rædwald of East Anglia.
- 1996 – The remains of the prehistoric Kennewick Man were discovered on a bank of the Columbia River near Kennewick, Washington, U.S.
- 2005 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army announced an end to its armed campaign to overthrow British rule in Northern Ireland and create a United Ireland.
- 1148 – The Siege of Damascus ended in a decisive victory for the Muslims, leading to the disintegration of the Second Crusade.
- 1818 – French physicist Augustin Fresnel (pictured) submitted his "Memoir on the Diffraction of Light", providing strong support for the wave theory of light.
- 1914 – The first shots of World War I were fired by the Austro-Hungarian river monitor SMS Bodrog upon Serbian defences near Belgrade.
- 1958 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act into law, establishing a new federal non-military space agency known as NASA.
- 1981 – An estimated worldwide television audience of 750 million people watched the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer at St Paul's Cathedral in London.
- 1656 – Led by King Charles X Gustav, the armies of Sweden and Brandenburg defeated the forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth near Warsaw.
- 1865 – Off the coast of Crescent City, California, U.S., the steamship Brother Jonathan (pictured) struck an uncharted rock and sank, killing 225 people; its cargo of a large number of gold coins was not retrieved until 1996.
- 1930 – Uruguay defeated Argentina at Estadio Centenario in Montevideo to win the first Football World Cup.
- 1981 – Amid widespread economic crisis and food shortages in Poland, up to 50,000 people, mostly women and children, took part in the largest of the hunger demonstrations in Łódź.
- 2014 – At least 151 people were killed when heavy rains triggered a landslide in Pune district, Maharashtra, India.
- 1200 or 1201 – John Komnenos the Fat briefly seized the throne of the Byzantine Empire from Alexios III Angelos, but he was caught that night and executed.
- 1777 – The Second Continental Congress passed a resolution allowing French nobleman the Marquis de Lafayette to enter the American revolutionary forces as a major general.
- 1954 – A team of Italian climbers became the first to reach the summit of K2 (pictured), the world's second-highest mountain.
- 1975 – The Troubles: In a botched paramilitary attack, three members of the popular Miami Showband and two Ulster Volunteer Force gunmen were killed in County Down, Northern Ireland.
- 1991 – Soviet Special Purpose Police Unit troops killed seven Lithuanian customs officials in Medininkai in the most serious attack of their campaign against Lithuanian border posts.