Washoe people

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Washoe
Wašiw
Bandera Washo.png
Washoe tribal flag
Total population
1,500 (2007)[1]
Regions with significant populations
 United States
( California and  Nevada)
Languages
English, Washo[1]
Religion
Traditional tribal religion[citation needed]

The Washoe or Wašišiw ("people from here", or transliterated in older literature as Wa She Shu) are a Great Basin tribe of Native Americans, living near Lake Tahoe at the border between California and Nevada.[1] The name "Washoe" or "Washo" (as preferred by themselves) is derived from the autonym Waashiw (wa·šiw or wá:šiw) in the Washo language or from Wašišiw (waší:šiw), the plural form of wašiw.

Territory[edit]

Washoe people have lived in the Great Basin and the eastern Sierra Nevada mountains for at least the last 6,000 years,[2] some say up to 9,000 years.[3] Prior to contact with Europeans, the territory of the Washoe people centered around Lake Tahoe (/ˈtɑːh/; Washo: dáʔaw / daʔaw / Da ow - "the lake"; or dewʔá:gaʔa /dawʔa:gaʔa / Da ow aga - "edge of the lake") and was roughly bounded by the southern shore of Honey Lake in the north, the West Walker River, Topaz Lake, and Sonora Pass in the south, the Sierra Nevada crest in the west, and the Pine Nut Mountains and Virginia Range in the east. Beside Lake Tahoe the Washoe utilized the upper ranges of the Carson (dá:bal k'iláʔam), Truckee (dabayóduweʔ), and West Walker rivers to the east as well the Sierra Valley (a site of extensive freshwater marshes filled with cattails, bulrushes and alkaline flats that drain into the Middle Fork Feather River) to the north. The Washoe would generally spend the summer in the Sierra Nevada, especially at Lake Tahoe; the fall in the ranges to the east; and the winter and spring in the valleys between them. Washoe Lake (c'óʔyaʔ dáʔaw) was named after them.

The Washoe/Washo were loosely organized into three (in some sources four) regional groups speaking slightly different dialects, which in turn were divided in groups (cooperating extending families for the seasonal hunt and living together in winter camps) and in nuclear families. The regional group was determined by where people had a winter camp:

  • Welmelti ("Northerners" or "Northern Washoe People")
  • Pauwalu / Powalu ("Easterners" or "Central Washoe People")
  • Hungalelti ("Southerners" or "Southern Washoe People") and,
  • Tanalelti ("Westerners" or "Western Washoe People")[4]

Since the western part of the Washo territory was in the mountains and subject to heavy snows, few people wintered there so very few were organized into the western group.[5]

History[edit]

Washoe woman

Washoe people are the only Great Basin tribe whose language is not Numic, so they are believed to have inhabited the region prior to neighboring tribes. The Kings Beach Complex that emerged about 500 CE around Lake Tahoe and the northern Sierra Nevadas are regarded as early Washoe culture. The Martis complex may have overlapped with the Kings Beach culture, and Martis pit houses gave way to conical bark slab houses of historic Washoe culture.[6]

The Washoe people and the neighboring Northern Paiute people were culturally and linguistically very different, and they sometimes came into conflict and were often enslaved by them.[citation needed]

Washoe people may have made contact with Spanish explorers in the early 19th century, but the Washoe did not sustain contact with people of European culture until the 1848 California Gold Rush.[2] Washoe resistance to incursions on their lands proved futile, and the last armed conflict with the Washoes and non-Indians was the Potato War of 1857, when starving Washoes were killed for gathering potatoes from a European-American farm near Honey Lake in California.[7]

Loss of the valley hunting grounds to farms and the piñon pine groves to feed Virginia City's demand for lumber and charcoal drove most Washoe to dependency on jobs on white ranches and farms and in cities. The areas where they settled became known as Indian colonies.

Culture[edit]

Louisa Keyser (Dat So La Lee), Washoe basketweaver

Piñon pine nuts gathered in the fall provided much of the food eaten in the winter. Roots, seeds, berries and game provided much of the food eaten during the rest of the year. The Washoe people were also deeply knowledgeable about their land and where resources were plentiful. This included an understanding of the seasonal cycles of both plants and animals. Wašiw people were also dependent on fishing at Lake Tahoe and the surrounding streams. Fishing was a huge part of Wašiw life; and each family had its own fishing grounds, until contact with western civilization led to commercial fishing in the area, destroying another important resource for the Wašiw.[8]

The Pine Nut Dance and girls' puberty rites remain very important ceremonies.[9] The Wašiw people once relied on medicine men and their innate knowledge of medicinal plants and ceremonies. Much of this knowledge and activity has been lost due to contact with the Western world.

Language[edit]

The Washoe / Wašiw language or Wá:šiw ʔítlu (today: Wašiw Wagayay) has been regarded as a language isolate,[1][10] However, it is sometimes tentatively regarded as part of the controversial Hokan language family.[11] The language is written in the Latin script.[1]

The Wašiw language is now considered a moribund language as only a handful of fluent elder speakers use the language. There has been a recent revival of the language and culture within the Tribe. "Wašiw Wagayay Maŋal" (the "house where Wašiw is spoken") was the first attempt by the Wašiw people to renew their language for the future generations. The tribe currently relies on the tribal Cultural Resource Department to provide language classes to the community. However, there has recently been a pedagogical shift within the tribe, and the youth have become the focal point of language and culture programs, because they are the future.

Washoe tribes[edit]

Under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the colonies in the Carson Valley area of Nevada and California gained federal recognition as the Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California. The colony in Reno, Nevada, which also had a substantial Paiute and Shoshoni population, gained separate recognition as the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony. There is evidence that some Washoe settled in the southwest region of Montana. The Susanville Rancheria includes Washoe members, as well as Northern Paiute, Northeastern Maidu, Achomawi, and Atsugewi members.[13]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Washo." Ethnologue. Accessed May 9, 2014.
  2. ^ a b Pritzker 246
  3. ^ Makley, Matthew (2018). The Small Shall Be Strong. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. p. 19. ISBN 9781625343475.
  4. ^ Downs, James (1966). The Two Worlds of the Washo: An Indian Tribe of California and Nevada. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. p. 49.
  5. ^ Downs, James (1966). The Two Worlds of the Washo: An Indian Tribe of California and Nevada. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. p. 49.
  6. ^ D'Azevedo 466
  7. ^ D'Azevedo 494
  8. ^ Dangberg 1968, d'Azevedo 1986, Nevers 1976
  9. ^ Pritzker, 246, 248
  10. ^ "Washoe Indian Tribe History." Access Genealogy. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
  11. ^ Pritzker 220
  12. ^ Pritzker 248
  13. ^ "California Indians and Their Reservations." SDSU Library and Information Access. (retrieved 11 May 2010)

References[edit]

  • Dangberg, Grace. 1968. Washo Tales: Three Original Washo Indian Legends. Nevada State Museum Occasional Paper Number 1. Carson City, Nevada.
  • d'Azevedo, Warren L. (1986). "Washoe" in Great Basin, Warren L. d'Azevedo, ed. pp. 466–498. Volume 11 in Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-004578-9/0160045754.
  • Nevers, Jo Ann. 1976. Wa She Shu: A Washo Tribal History. Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada: University of Utah Printing Service.
  • Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]