Page semi-protected

2018–19 United States federal government shutdown

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The second[a] shutdown of the United States federal government in 2018, which has continued into January 2019, began at midnight EST on Saturday, December 22. It occurred when the United States Congress and President Donald Trump could not agree on an appropriations bill to fund the operations of the federal government for the 2019 fiscal year, or a temporary continuing resolution that would extend the deadline for passing a bill. The Antideficiency Act prohibits federal departments or agencies from conducting non-essential operations without appropriations legislation in place. As a result, nine executive departments with around 800,000 employees had to shut down partially or in full, affecting about one-fourth of government activities and causing employee furloughs.[1] As of January 21, 2019 EST, the shutdown is in its 31st day. It is the longest U.S. government shutdown in history, having surpassed the 21-day shutdown of 1995–1996.[2]

The shutdown stemmed from an impasse over Trump's demand for $5.7 billion in federal funds for a U.S.–Mexico border wall.[3][4][5] In December 2018, the Republican-controlled Senate unanimously passed an appropriations bill without wall funding, and the bill appeared likely to be approved by the Republican-controlled House of Representatives and Trump. After Trump faced heavy criticism from right-wing media outlets and pundits for appearing to back down on his campaign promise to "build the wall", he announced that he would not sign any appropriations bill that did not fund it. As a result, the House instead passed a stopgap bill with funding for a wall, but it lacked support in the Senate.[6]

In January 2019, the House—now controlled by a Democratic majority—voted to approve the appropriations bill without wall funding that had previously passed the Senate unanimously. Trump has continued to maintain that he will veto any bill that does not fund the wall, and Republican Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell has blocked the Senate from considering any appropriations legislation that Trump will not support, including the bill that had previously passed.[7][8]


During his 2016 campaign, Trump promised to build a wall along the Mexico–United States border for which Mexico would pay.[12] The president of Mexico rejected the idea of providing any funding for a U.S. border wall. In 2018, Trump requested $18 billion in federal funding for some 700 miles (1,100 km) of barrier on the border, mostly to replace 654 miles (1,053 km) of aging fence built under the Secure Fence Act of 2006. On December 25, 2018, Trump reversed course, suggesting that he might accept 500 to 550 miles (800 to 890 km) of either mostly refurbished barrier (rather than new barriers in locations that did not previously have them) by November 2020.[13] Trump's proposals and public statements on the wall have shifted widely over time, with varied proposals as to the design, material, length, height, and width of a wall.[14]

In September 2018, Congress passed two "minibus" appropriations bills for the fiscal year 2019 federal budget, which began on October 1, 2018. These bills combined five of the 12 regular appropriations bills covering 77% of federal discretionary funding, and included a continuing resolution until December 7 for the remaining agencies.[15] On December 6, Congress passed a second continuing resolution to December 21, to give more time for negotiations on Trump's proposed border wall, which had been delayed due to the death and state funeral of George H. W. Bush.[16]

A Senate Homeland Security appropriations bill, negotiated by both parties and reported by the committee to the Senate, provided for $1.6 billion for border security, including funds for "approximately 65 miles of pedestrian fencing along the southwest border in the Rio Grande Valley Sector".[17] The bill did not receive a vote on the Senate floor, although House Democratic whip Steny Hoyer indicated that such a proposal could be acceptable to House Democrats.[17] Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-NY) says the Democratic Party will not support $5.7 billion for the border wall. At a press conference before the government shutdown, he notes “The $1.6 billion for border security negotiated by Democrats and Republicans is our position. We believe that is the right way to go. …” [18]

Beginning of shutdown

Donald Trump meets with Nancy Pelosi and Chuck Schumer on December 11, 2018, stating "I will be the one to shut it down."
Muir Beach Overlook in San Francisco, closed for the shutdown in December 2018

On December 11, Trump held a televised meeting with Speaker-designee Nancy Pelosi and Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer in the Oval Office and asked them to support an appropriation of $5.7 billion for funding of a border wall. They refused, resulting in an argument between Trump and both Congressional leaders. During the contentious discussion, Trump said, "I am proud to shut down the government for border security ... I will be the one to shut [the government] down. I'm not going to blame you for it ... I will take the mantle. I will be the one to shut it down." Schumer replied, "We shouldn't shut down the government over a dispute."[19]

Three days later, Politico reported that Trump was willing to sign a bill with no funding for a border wall that delayed a government shutdown into 2019 and the new Congress.[20] On December 18, following a meeting with Trump, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell said that the government would not shut down on December 22 and that Trump was "flexible" over funding for a border wall. Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Richard Shelby commented that the most likely resolution was a bill that funded the government until early February. Schumer added that his caucus would "very seriously" consider such a bill and Senate Majority Whip John Cornyn said "I don't know anybody on the Hill that wants a shutdown, and I think all the president's advisers are telling him this would not be good."[21]

The next day, the Senate unanimously passed a second continuing resolution (H.R. 695) that would fund the government until February 8, 2019. Pelosi announced that House Democrats would support the measure, meaning it would overcome opposition from conservative Republicans and pass the House.[22] On December 20, following increased criticism from conservative media, pundits, and political figures,[23][24] Trump reversed his position and declared that he would not sign any funding bill that did not include border wall funding. The same day, the House passed a continuing resolution that included $5 billion for the wall and $8 billion in disaster aid.[6] This bill failed in the Senate.[25] Trump's changing position caused consternation among Senate Republicans.[23][26]

The shutdown started December 22[25] and Trump announced that he would cancel his planned trip to Mar-a-Lago for Christmas and stay in Washington, D.C.[27] The meaning of the term "wall" was expected to be an aspect of the negotiations.[28]



115th Congress

Trump meets with Congressional leadership in the White House Situation Room on January 2, 2019

Congress adjourned on December 22 for the Christmas and holiday season, with many predicting that the shutdown would not be resolved until the start of the 116th Congress.[29] The Senate reconvened on December 27 for four minutes, with Republican Senator Pat Roberts (R-KS) presiding over the session. The House briefly reconvened as well, with Republican Majority Whip Steve Scalise (R-LA) saying that members should not expect any further votes for the rest of 2018. Representative Jim McGovern (D-MA) went to the House floor to try to force consideration of a short-term funding bill to end the shutdown that the Senate had already passed, but Speaker Paul Ryan refused to let him speak.[30]

Congress then adjourned again until December 31, 2018 for a pro forma session.[31] On January 2, 2019, the last full day of the 115th United States Congress, there was a pro forma session scheduled to last several minutes.

116th Congress

The new Congress was sworn in on January 3, 2019, and the first order of business in the House after swearing in the new members and electing the Speaker was a continuing resolution to fund the Department of Homeland Security until February 8 (H.J.Res. 1), which passed by a vote of 239–192; and a package combining five appropriation bills funding the rest of the government for the remainder of the fiscal year (H.R. 21),[32] passed by a vote of 241–190. The bills contained $1.3 billion of funding for border security, but no additional funding for a border wall.[33]

Beginning on January 9, the Democratic-controlled House voted on four appropriations bills individually:

This strategy has been compared to one used by Republicans during the 2013 shutdown in the form of a series of fourteen mini-continuing resolutions.[40][41]

Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell vowed that the Senate would not consider the House bills to reopen the government, indicating that Senate Republicans would not support any bill unless it had Trump's support.[34][35][38][42][43][44][45] In January 2019, McConnell and Senate Republicans came under increased pressure to break the impasse and reopen the government.[46][47] Three Republican Senators—Susan Collins of Maine, Lisa Murkowski of Alaska, and Cory Gardner of Colorado—called for an end to the shutdown. Senators Collins and Gardner said they supported the House's budget bills to end the shutdown.[44][48] West Virginia Senator Shelley Moore Capito said that she could support ending the shutdown provided border wall talks continued.[48] Pat Roberts of Kansas said that shutdowns "never work" and only turned affected federal workers into "pawns" and that, although the time had not yet come for Senate Republicans to override any possible Trump veto and end the shutdown, "we're getting pretty close.”[48] Johnny Isakson of Georgia echoed that sentiment, saying that support for McConnell's refusal to support bills that don't include funding for a wall would not last indefinitely: "There's a time when that may run out."[49]

On January 16, McConnell again blocked the House appropriation bills to reopen the government from being considered on the Senate floor.[50]


Speaker Pelosi's Letter to President Trump
President Trump's letter to Speaker Pelosi

On January 4, after the new Congress was sworn-in and Pelosi regained the speakership, she and Schumer, as well as congressional Republican leadership met with Trump at the White House.[44][51] Pelosi and Schumer argued that the shutdown needed to end and reported that Trump refused. They said that Trump threatened to "keep the government closed for a very long period of time. Months or even years."[44] On January 4, Trump admitted to "absolutely" making that threat, adding, "I'm very proud of doing what I'm doing."[44] Trump then said that he was considering declaring a state of emergency to use military funding for the wall.[52][53] At the meeting, Trump reprimanded his acting chief of staff Mick Mulvaney for attempting to propose a compromise between Trump's $5.7 billion demand for a border wall and the Democrats' proposal of $1.3 billion for border security, using an expletive.[51]

Trump addressed the nation from the Oval Office at 9 p.m. EST on January 8, in a nationally televised address broadcast on both network and cable television.[54][55] In his speech, Trump asserted that there was a "growing humanitarian and security crisis" on the U.S.-Mexico border that could only be solved by appropriating $5.7 billion for construction of a steel wall.[56] Trump did not make any new proposals in his speech to break the impasse.[56] Immediately after Trump's speech, Schumer and Pelosi delivered a response on behalf of the Democrats, in which they demanded an end to the shutdown and said: "President Trump must stop holding the American people hostage, must stop manufacturing a crisis and must reopen the government."[56]

January 9 meeting

Trump met with congressional leadership again on January 9, in a meeting lasting 14 minutes.[57] Trump asked Pelosi, "Will you agree to my wall?" and when she replied that she would not, Trump said "bye-bye" and walked out of the meeting, later declaring it "a total waste of time".[57] Schumer accused Trump of throwing a "temper tantrum" and slamming his hands on the table.[58] Trump rebuked Schumer's comments on Twitter.[59] Vice President Pence and House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy said that Trump remained calm and never raised his voice.[60] On January 10, Pelosi described the preceding day's meeting with Trump as "a setup" staged by White House aides so that Trump could walk out of the meeting. Pelosi described Trump as "un-presidential"; accused him of "exploiting this situation in a way that enhances his power"; and said: "I don't think he really wants a solution. I think he loves the distraction."[61]

After Trump walked out of the January 9 meeting with congressional Democratic leaders, no further negotiations have been conducted.[62] Several Republican senators met in the office of South Carolina Senator Lindsey Graham, a close Trump ally, after the meeting to discuss a compromise to end the shutdown. They discussed agreeing to Trump's demand for border wall funding and offering the Democrats help for Dreamers, refugee protections and extensions to H-2B visas.[63] On January 13, Graham proposed that Trump agree to a congressional vote to reopen the government pending the resumption of negotiations. Graham suggested that if Trump and congressional Democrats did not come to an agreement at that time, Trump could declare a national emergency. Trump rejected this proposal the next day.[51]

Trump's proposal

On January 19, Trump proposed to temporarily extend two programs that protect some unauthorized immigrants from deportation in exchange for funding for the border wall. Speaking from the White House, Trump also reiterated that he no longer planned a continuous concrete wall along the entire border.[64]

The first program, Temporary Protected Status, shields around 320,000 people who cannot be deported because their home countries have been affected by war or natural disaster. The second, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), applies to around 700,000 people who were brought into the country as children and are sometimes called "Dreamers". Democrats have long sought to make these programs permanent and provide their recipients with the ability to become naturalized citizens, but Trump only offered to temporarily extend them without any pathway to citizenship.

Democrats rejected Trump's proposal. Nancy Pelosi insisted that a pathway to citizenship be given, calling Trump's offer "unacceptable" and a "non-starter" because it did not "represent a good faith effort to restore certainty to people’s lives." Analysts pointed out that Trump had previously rejected a deal that would have provided funding for the border wall in exchange for further protection for DACA recipients. Conversely, Republicans reacted positively to Trump's proposal, and Mitch McConnell said he would bring it to a vote in the Senate.[65]

Some suggested that Trump's relatively conciliatory tone during the speech indicated that the Democratic refusal to provide funding for the border wall was successfully wearing down Republican willingness to keep the government shut down, while others called Trump's announcement an unserious "publicity stunt" meant to shift the onus to compromise onto Democrats.[66]

Trump's threat to declare national emergency

Border statistics: Both the population of unauthorized immigrants in the U.S. and southwestern border apprehensions have declined significantly over the past decade.[67][68]

During the shutdown, on January 8 in a press conference, a reporter asked Trump if he was considering declaring a national emergency, to which Trump replied, "I have the absolute right to do national emergency if I want" and suggested that he could declare an emergency.[69] After this, Trump repeatedly threatened to declare a national emergency to unilaterally order wall construction without congressional authorization.[70][71] Some of Trump's advisors, including his son-in-law Jared Kushner, have reportedly attempted to dissuade him from doing so.[71] Administration officials considered diverting hurricane-relief and wildfire-relief funds from a $13.9 billion February 2018 emergency supplemental appropriations bill (for disaster relief in Puerto Rico, Florida, Texas and California, and other places) in order to fund a wall, directing the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to look into this possibility.[71][72][73]

An attempt by Trump to invoke emergency powers would almost certainly prompt a lengthy legal challenge in court.[70] Democrats responded that Trump lacked the authority to declare a national emergency; Representative Adam Schiff called it a "non-starter" and said that "if Harry Truman couldn't nationalize the steel industry during wartime, this President doesn't have the power to declare an emergency and build a multibillion dollar wall on the border."[74] Democratic Representative Nydia Velázquez said the notion of redirecting disaster-relief funds to a border wall was "beyond appalling".[73] Presidents have declared emergencies in the past, but none has "involved funding a policy goal after failing to win congressional approval".[70] Yale Law School professor Bruce Ackerman wrote that the declaration of a national emergency to build a wall as Trump suggested would be unconstitutional and illegal.[75] Other scholars, such as Elizabeth Goitein of the Brennan Center for Justice, believe that Trump could make a colorable argument that diverting military-construction appropriations for border-wall construction is legal, but that doing so would be an abuse of power.[70]

President Trump states on January 14, 2019 "I'm not looking to call a national emergency, this is so simple you shouldn't have to. Now, I have the absolute legal right to call it but I'm not looking to do that cause this is too simple."

On January 11, Trump—while maintaining he has the authority to do so anytime—said he was not in any rush to declare a national emergency to secure wall funding, saying he'd rather see Congress "do its job" and that the Democrats "should come back and vote".[76] The next day he again threatened to use emergency powers if Democrats did not "come to their senses".[77]

State of the Union controversy

On January 16, Pelosi sent a letter to Trump that indicated that the House is unavailable for the State of the Union Address scheduled for January 29. Pelosi wrote: "Sadly, given the security concerns and unless government reopens this week, I suggest that we work together to determine another suitable date after government has reopened for this address or for you to consider delivering your State of the Union address in writing to the Congress on Jan. 29."[78] The delivery of the State of the Union address had been delayed or substantially changed on only two occasions since 1913.[79][80] In a letter sent to the Speaker the next day, Trump said she would not be allowed to fly on military planes on scheduled visits to Brussels, Egypt, and Afghanistan. Trump said, “We will reschedule this seven-day excursion when the shutdown is over.” Pelosi and a Congressional delegation had planned on visiting with overseas American military personnel.[81]


Agencies funded by two "minibus" appropriations bills passed in September 2018 are not affected by the shutdown.[25] About 380,000 federal employees were furloughed, and an additional 420,000 employees for the affected agencies were expected to work with their pay delayed until the end of the shutdown, totaling 800,000 workers affected out of 2.1 million civilian non-postal federal employees.[82] As only about a quarter of the government is shutdown, many who are not federal employees do not fully realize the effects of the shutdown.[83]

On federal employees

A sample letter provided by the Office of Personnel Management[84]

Job types affected include staff throughout the United States, not just DC area employees. FBI agents, Federal corrections officers, FDA food inspectors, NASA employees, TSA staff, Border Patrol staff and CBP officers, census staff, National Park Service staff, members of the Coast Guard and Federal Aviation Administration air traffic controllers are either working without pay or furloughed (ordered to stay home).[85]

On January 11, 800,000 workers for agencies shutdown or furloughed missed their first paycheck since the shutdown began. [86] Federal workers normally receive pay on federal holidays, which include Christmas, New Years Day and potentially Martin Luther King Jr. Day. The shutdown has affected the employees' entitlement to paid holidays due to the shutdown.[87] Unemployment assistance to federal workers furloughed under the government shutdown varies by locality. Only non-reporting workers are eligible for assistance, whereas furloughed workers who still report to work without pay are not. If the government shutdown ends with retroactive pay, the unemployment assistance will be required to be paid back.[88] Furloughed workers may seek other employment opportunities while they are idled. External employment must meet agency-specific ethics guidelines, and mandatory reviews of external employment are also curtailed as most ethics officials were also furloughed.[89][90] Additionally, federal employees are not able to use vacation or sick leave during a shutdown so scheduled holiday vacation time either became unpaid if the worker was deemed non-essential or had to be cancelled for the worker to return to work if the worker was deemed essential. In many cases the unused leave over a certain threshold expires at year-end, but employees with leave scheduled in advance of the shutdown will not have "use or lose" leave balances deducted from their accrued leave.[91][92] Many furloughed employees took to crowd-funding campaigns to raise cash to replace missed paychecks, but these types of solicitations may also run afoul of government ethics rules.[93][94]

Furlough Tip Sheet Provided by the United States Coast Guard

After furloughed federal workers and their families began sharing stories of their hardships over Christmas, such as not being able to meet rent or mortgage payments and missed bills, the hashtag "#ShutdownStories" went viral on social media.[95][96] The federal government's Office of Personnel Management responded by publishing sample letters that employees could send to their creditors. One read, in part, "I am a Federal employee who has recently been furloughed due to a lack of funding of my agency. Because of this, my income has been severely cut and I am unable to pay the entire cost of my mortgage, along with my other expenses." Other federal workers are reaching out to other news outlets to share their stories about having to stretch their budgets and how the shutdown has impacted their families.[97] In addition to being unable to meet rent or pay bills, many federal workers around the country have been unable to pay for groceries and have had to turn to food banks.[98]

The OPM also suggested that employees who had landlords write: "I would like to discuss with you the possibility of trading my services to perform maintenance (e.g. painting, carpentry work) in exchange for partial rent payments" and that those who lacked funds to pay bills should hire personal attorneys to assist them.[99][100] Other organizations also posted advice on how to "find supplemental income"; the United States Coast Guard suggesting that Coast Guard members "have a garage sale, offer to watch children, walk pets or house sit" while furloughed.[101]

On January 4, The Washington Post reported that because the shutdown was triggered by the failure to enact spending bills that continued a federal government pay freeze, hundreds of senior Trump administration political appointees would receive a roughly $10,000 pay raise the following day. White House press secretary Sarah Sanders said the pending pay raise was an "unnecessary byproduct of the shutdown."[102]

On January 10, the Senate approved by unanimous consent a bill (S.24, the Government Employee Fair Treatment Act of 2019) providing that furloughed federal employees would receive back pay for the period of the furlough once appropriations were restored; the bill was approved the next day by the House on a vote of 411-7.[103][104] Trump signed the bill into law on January 16.[105]

Economic impact

An analysis from S&P released on January 11 reported that the shutdown has cost the U.S. economy $3.6 billion.[106] Similarly, the White House's Council of Economic Advisers estimated on January 15 that the shutdown reduces economic growth by 0.13 percentage points each week, for a total hit to economic growth of 0.5 percentage points.[107] The furloughing of 145,000 federal workers and 112,500 federal contractors in the Washington Metropolitan Area costs the regional economy $119 million each day, or 7.3 percent of the region's total output.[108] That reduces GDP by $2.8 billion and counting just in the Washington DC area alone.[108] The shutdown has also had a noticeable impact on hunger in the national capital region: food pantries in Washington DC and Northern Virginia have reported an increase of around 10 percent in the number of people coming to pick up groceries, with most of that increase coming from federal workers and contractors.[109]

Some economists believe that an extended shutdown could weaken consumer confidence and heighten the risk of pushing the U.S. economy into a recession.[110] Between 800,000 federal government employees and some 4 million federal contractors, the shutdown directly affects nearly 3% of the labor force of the United States; in a typical recession unemployment increases 2-4%. The reduction in spending by those households combined with the reduction of government services could have macroeconomic results similar to a typical recession.[111]

The shutdown had an adverse effect on the budgets of state and local governments, as states have covered some federal services (particularly for the most vulnerable) during the shutdown.[112][113]

Fitch Ratings warned that an extended shutdown might lead to a downgrade in the US's Triple-A credit rating if lawmakers were unable to pass a budget or manage the debt ceiling.[114] That in turn would make borrowing more costly for companies and American households, because it is the benchmark for many other lines of credit.[114] The US credit rating has been downgraded only once in the past, in 2011, by Standard & Poor’s.[114]

Food stamps and food inspections

USDA's website during the shutdown as of January 13 2019

During the shutdown, 95% of federal staff for the USDA's Food and Nutrition Services were furloughed.[115] The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the food-stamp program, can be funded through a $3 billion contingency fund appropriated by Congress in 2018; if the shutdown continues through March 2019, those funds will be exhausted, leaving some 38 million Americans without food stamps and endangering food security.[115][116] Continuation of the shutdown may also delay the issuance of some $140 billion in tax refunds from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).[115]

The Food and Drug Administration oversees most of the food supply in the United States. In early January, Dr. Scott Gottlieb, the FDA commissioner, reported that the FDA has suspended food inspections. He did note that inspection of foreign food is continuing as "almost normal," because they are considered vital.[117]

Meat and some egg products are inspected by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service. Federal legislation requires these inspectors to remain working without pay.[117]

National parks and capital museums

Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge under shutdown on January 3, 2019

As with the January 2018 shutdown, national parks were expected to be open as practical, though there would be no staff and buildings would be closed. The shutdown affected national parks unevenly, some still accessible with bare-bones staffing levels, some operating with money from states or charitable groups and others locked off. Diane Regas, president and chief executive of the Trust for Public Land, called upon Trump to close all national parks to protect the public: by the third week of the shutdown, three people had died in the national parks.[118] This number was reported as being within 'usual' levels.[119] By January 1, 2019, the problems of neglected trash pileup, overflowing public toilets, and access to first aid were repeated across the Park system.[120] At Yosemite National Park, on January 4, 2019, a death from a fall went unreported for a week.[121][122][120]

New York State kept the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island open,[123] as it did during the January 2018 shutdown.[124] Arizona and Utah were able to keep open Grand Canyon National Park, Zion National Park, Arches National Park, and Bryce Canyon National Park and provide services such as public restrooms, shuttles and trash collection. Utah’s funding included visitor centers. The sites closed outright in the southwest alone, included Bandelier National Monument and Valles Caldera National Preserve in northern New Mexico, White Sands National Monument in southern New Mexico, Petrified Forest National Park in northern Arizona and Casa Grande Ruins National Monument in south-central Arizona.[125] Access to major parts of Sequoia and Kings Canyon parks were closed,[126] and at Joshua Tree National Park, the administration policy of leaving parks open to visitors despite the staff furloughs is resulting in park damage,[127] including the toppling of protected trees during the shutdown.[128] In Texas, Big Bend National Park had no visitor services, such as restrooms. Some trailheads were closed. Regulations continued to be enforced, as the park remained open. Visitors were reminded to remove their own trash and toilet paper.[129][120] The Alamo remained open but no NPS services were available at the San Antonio Missions National Historical Park.[130] Channel Islands National Park remains open to public access, although services normally provided by the national park service are instead provided by Island Packers Cruises, the company normally in charge of ferries to the islands.[131]

The National Archives and Records Administration closed immediately on December 22, 2018.[132] The Library of Congress, the U.S. Botanic Garden, the Capitol Visitor Center, and the U.S. Capitol Building remained open due to being funded by the 2019 Legislative Branch appropriations bill.[132] The Smithsonian Institution operated on "prior-year funds" through January 1, 2019. On January 2, 2019, the Smithsonian Institution initiated an orderly shutdown of all its facilities, including 19 museums in Washington, D.C., and New York City, the National Zoo, and the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute.[133][134] The following day, the National Gallery of Art was closed.[135] The National Zoo also closed on January 3, 2019.[136] Tourism attendance on the National Mall was affected.[136] On January 5, 2019, acting Interior Secretary David Bernhardt directed the diversion of fee revenue defined by the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act to be used to fund minimal maintenance activities as to preserve access to highly-visited parks.[137]

Airspace and aviation workers

According to a January 12, 2019 article in The Economist, on January 11, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) was unable to pay its workers who had not been paid since December 22; 55% more of them called in sick than in January 2018.[138]

The air traffic controllers in the US are currently federal employees and affected by this government shutdown. As the air traffic controllers were deemed essential employees, they were required to work without pay. The National Air Traffic Controllers Association, the union that represent air traffic controllers, filed a lawsuit against the federal government for the shutdown on January 11, 2019,[139] claiming that requiring 16,000 air traffic controllers to work without being paid violates their constitutional rights and federal minimum wage law.[140] This is the third lawsuit filed against the federal government since the beginning of the shutdown.

Airline and aircraft safety inspectors, on the other hand, had been deemed nonessential and furloughed since the beginning of the government shutdown. A recent news report on January 12, 2019 stated that the Federal Aviation Administration had already returned 500 furloughed safety inspectors back to work and would return more to work in the following weeks.[141] Many TSA employees have also called out sick, most of them because they're trying to find other jobs where they can temporarily be compensated due to the shutdown.[142]

The shutdown initially prevented the National Transportation Safety Board from assisting the Mexican government's investigation of the 2018 Puebla helicopter crash that killed a state governor and senator; an exception allowed the NTSB to assist with the Mexican government in the investigation along with the Transportation Safety Board of Canada.[143][144] The NTSB also has to delay several investigations until the government reopens and is only continuing investigations into accidents that are considered the most serious.[145]


Since late December, court-appointed private lawyers who represent indigent defendants have worked without pay.[146] The Federal Judiciary initially had a goal of sustaining paid operations through January 18, 2019.[147] It said it will run out of money to sustain court operations no earlier than January 25, but perhaps as late as February 1.[148][146] Failing funding, the Judiciary will operate under the terms of the Antideficiency Act.[147] This Act does not allow federal agencies to expend federal funds before an appropriation, and or to accept any voluntary services.[149] The judiciary has 33,000 employees nationwide.[146] Under the Constitution, Supreme Court Justices, appeals court judges and district judges would continue to be paid.[146]

Other agencies

NTSB site shut down message

During the shutdown, the federal government's e-Verify system—a system for employers to check the eligibility of their employees to work in the United States—was halted.[150][151] Official websites for agencies, have been rendered insecure or inaccessible through the shutdown, as the digital certificates expire and are not renewed.[152]

Executive and legislative affairs of the local government in the District of Columbia continued operating through the shutdown, due to a provision previously enacted as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017.[10] The District's local court system, including the Superior Court of the District of Columbia and the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, are part of the federal judiciary and were partially shut down, preventing District residents from accessing services such as marriage licensing.[11] The District of Columbia government said it would take over trash collection and snow plowing operations for National Park Service facilities in Washington.[153]

The shutdown also interfered with the response to the 2018 Sunda Strait tsunami as the U.S. Embassy in Jakarta's Twitter account was unable to tweet updates, and the United States Geological Survey was unable to provide data on the tsunami.[154] The American weather model, the GFS suffered a significant drop in forecast quality when a data format change during the shutdown prevented certain weather data from being recognized by the GFS, and the shutdown prevented the bug from being corrected.

Public notice from the FCC published on January 2, 2019 regarding effects of shutdown on FCC operations

By mid-day Thursday January 3, 2019, the FCC had suspended operations and the FCC Chairman Ajit Pai had canceled his trip to the Consumer Electronics Show.[155] The FTC also suspended certain online operations.[156] The EPA and Department of Energy's Energy Star website was not available for the duration of the shutdown.[157]


Protests and lawsuits

American Federation of Government Employees protest on January 10 in D.C.
Union members rally in McAllen, Texas, on January 11
Union members protest in Dallas on January 10

On January 10, the American Federation of Government Employees, along with several other unions, announced plans to protest the government shutdown at 1:00pm EST in Washington, DC. Leaders of the National Federation of Federal Employees stated they had hoped that bringing federal workers to the President's doorstep would show him that it was the individual workers that the shutdown was hurting the most. President Trump had left to visit the US-Mexican border in Texas earlier in the day.[158]

Similar protests have taken place in the cities of Philadelphia and St. Louis, among others.[159]

Shortly after the protests, the American Federation of Government Employees sued the Trump administration to challenge the arrangements for work without pay during the shutdown. A similar suit was raised and won during the 2013 Federal Government shutdown.[160] The Air Traffic Controllers Association have also sued the Trump administration, as the shutdown is allegedly violating the Fair Labor Standards Act, by failing to pay the workers at least a minimum wage during the shutdown.[161]

Members of Congress donating or refusing salary

As the salaries for members of Congress are written into permanent law and not funded through annual appropriations, the government shutdown does not affect their salaries. Thus the Senators and Representatives will still be paid their biweekly salaries of $6,700 towards at least $174,000 a year.[162]

Several Democratic Senators and Representatives said they would donate their salary during the shutdown. Senator Catherine Cortez Masto indicated she would donate hers to a Nevada charity,[163] Senator Mazie Hirono would donate her salary to Hawaii food banks,[164] Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren said she would give hers to refugee non-profit HIAS,[164] New York Congressman Max Rose stated that he would give his salary to charity[165] and outgoing Senator Heidi Heitkamp of North Dakota pledged hers to charity, along with her Republican colleague John Hoeven.[166] Republican senator Kevin Cramer, who defeated Heidi Heitkamp in the 2018 midterm elections, refused to donate his salary, calling the move "gimmicky".[166]

As of January 10, 2019, 71 members of Congress—13 Senators and 58 Representatives—have either announced that they plan to donate their pay to various charities or causes, or asked House Chief Administrator Phil Kiko to withhold it entirely.[167][168]

Public opinion

In January 2019, a CNN poll conducted by SSRS found that over 56% of the responding public oppose a wall while 39% favor it, and 45% view the situation at the border as a crisis. The numbers are reportedly extremely similar to the poll in December 2018 yet a later poll by ABC news showed that as the partial shutdown entered its fourth week support for building a wall was increasing.[169][170] A poll done through YouGov between December 23–25, 2018, reported that 51% of respondents thought Trump deserved "a lot" of the blame, 44% thought congressional Democrats and 39% thought congressional Republicans.[171] Similar results were reported by a December 21–25 survey done by Reuters/Ipsos in which 47% of respondents said that the shutdown was the President's fault and 33% blamed Congressional Democrats.[171]

Over the course of the shutdown, Trump's approval rating declined and his disapproval rating increased.[172] His net approval rating was by the middle of January 2019 at its lowest point since February 2018.[172] On December 27, 2018, it was reported that Trump's approval rating of registered voters was at 39%, with 56% disapproval. Broken down the rating was split across party lines, with Republicans reporting an 80% approval rate while Democrats and independents reported a 90% and 57% disapproval rating, respectively.[173] The poll was conducted through Morning Consult between December 21–23. The poll also reported that 43% of respondents blamed Trump for the shutdown, with 31% blaming congressional Democrats and 7% congressional Republicans.[171] Another poll through The New York Times Upshot/Siena College reported that 89% of voters' views on Trump and the wall were aligned, suggesting that support for the wall was a function of support for Trump.[174]

The Washington PostABC News poll published on January 13, 2019, found that a larger number of Americans blamed Trump and congressional Republicans than congressional Democrats for the shutdown.[175] A PBS NewsHourMarist poll found that on January 15, 2019, a majority of Americans thought that President Trump was to blame for the shutdown.[176]

See also


  1. ^ Not including the February 2018 funding lapse related to the January 2018 shutdown.


  1. ^ Wamsley, Laurel (January 9, 2019). "How Is The Shutdown Affecting America? Let Us Count The Ways". NPR.
  2. ^ Gates, Guilbert (January 9, 2019). "This Government Shutdown Is One of the Longest Ever". The New York Times. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  3. ^ Julie Hirschfeld Davis & Michael Tackett (January 2, 2019). "Trump and Democrats Dig In After Talks to Reopen Government Go Nowhere". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 3, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  4. ^ Damian Paletta & Erica Werner (January 2, 2019). "Trump falsely claims Mexico is paying for wall, demands taxpayer money for wall in meeting with Democrats". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 3, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  5. ^ Liptak, Kevin (January 4, 2019). "Trump says he could keep shutdown going for months or years". CNN. Archived from the original on January 4, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  6. ^ a b Ferris, Sarah; Bresnahan, John (December 20, 2018). "House and Senate on collision course as shutdown nears". POLITICO. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
  7. ^ Erica Werner, Damian Paletta & Seung Min Kim, House Democrats vote to reopen government and deny Trump wall money, defying veto threat, Washington Post (January 3, 2019).
  8. ^ Clare Foran & Ted Barrett, Mitch McConnell blocks Senate Democrats' move to reopen government, CNN (January 10, 2019).
  9. ^ "FY 2019 HHS Contingency Staffing Plan for Operations". U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Assistant Secretary for Financial Resources. September 25, 2018. Archived from the original on December 22, 2018. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  10. ^ a b Connolly, Griffin (January 19, 2018). "D.C. Stays Open This Time Around — Even If Federal Government Shuts Down". Roll Call. Archived from the original on January 19, 2018. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
  11. ^ a b "This Couple Was Turned Away From Getting Their Marriage License In DC During The Government Shutdown". BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on January 2, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  12. ^ Blitzer, Wolf; Trump, Donald (2016-02-25). Donald Trump says he will make Mexico pay for wall (Television production). University of Houston: CNN. Retrieved 2019-01-20.
  13. ^ "Trump moves goalposts on border wall, says 500 miles of replacement fence would be good enough". Dallas News. December 25, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  14. ^ Gabby Orr, From ‘wall' to ‘barrier’: How Trump’s vision for the border keeps changing, Politico (January 8, 2019).
  15. ^ Conradis, Brandon (September 26, 2018). "House passes $854B spending bill to avert shutdown". The Hill. Archived from the original on September 27, 2018. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  16. ^ Bade, Rachael; Everett, Burgess (December 6, 2018). "Congress averts shutdown, postponing fight over Trump's wall". Politico. Archived from the original on December 6, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  17. ^ a b Lindsey McPherson, $1.6 Billion for Border Security, Not Just Wall, Could Be Agreed To, Hoyer Says, Roll Call (December 4, 2018).
  18. ^ Liptak, Kevin (2018-11-27). "GOP leaders say Trump remains firm on $5 billion wall funding request". CNN. Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  19. ^ Burgess Everett; Sarah Ferris; Caitlin Oprysko (December 11, 2018). "Trump says he's 'proud' to shut down government during fight with Pelosi and Schumer". Politico. Archived from the original on December 24, 2018. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  20. ^ Eliana Johnson; Burgess Everett; Rachael Bade (December 14, 2018). "Trump considers delaying border wall fight until January". Politico. Archived from the original on December 24, 2018. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  21. ^ Sarah Ferris; Burgess Everett; Eliana Johnson (December 18, 2018). "GOP talks Trump off the shutdown ledge". Politico. Archived from the original on December 22, 2018. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  22. ^ Erica Werner; Paul Kane; Josh Dawsey (December 19, 2018). "Senate passes bill to keep government open until February, undercutting Trump's drive for border wall funding". Th Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 24, 2018. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  23. ^ a b Jason Schwartz (December 20, 2018). "Conservative media turns on Trump for going wobbly on the wall". Politico. Archived from the original on December 24, 2018. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  24. ^ Eliana Johnson; Burgess Everett (December 20, 2018). "Pressure from base pushed a flustered Trump into shutdown reversal". Politico. Archived from the original on December 21, 2018. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  25. ^ a b c Werner, Erica; Paletta, Damian; Wagner, John (December 21, 2018). "Partial government shutdown assured after lawmakers leave Capitol without budget deal". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 21, 2018. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
  26. ^ Burgess Everett (December 20, 2018). "'Can't make this stuff up': Senate GOP isn't sweating shutdown". Politico. Archived from the original on December 21, 2018. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  27. ^ Andrew Restuccia; Eliana Johnson (December 21, 2018). "Trump to stay in Washington amid shutdown". Politico. Archived from the original on December 23, 2018. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  28. ^ Cochrane, Emily; Medina, Jennifer (December 26, 2018). "As Shutdown Continues, Resolution May Depend on Definition of 'Wall'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 27, 2018. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
  29. ^ "US shutdown looks set to drag through Christmas". BBC News. December 22, 2018. Archived from the original on December 24, 2018. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
  30. ^ Nicholas Fandos; Catie Edmondson (December 27, 2018). "With No Votes Scheduled, a Government Shutdown Will Greet the Democratic House". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 28, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  31. ^ Werner, Erica; Kane, Paul; Sonmez, Felicia (December 27, 2018). "Shutdown set to extend into new year after Congress punts on budget, border votes". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 27, 2018. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
  32. ^ "New Congress: House votes to reopen government but no end in sight to shutdown - live updates". Archived from the original on January 3, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  33. ^ Swanson, Ian (January 3, 2019). "House passes legislation to re-open government despite opposition from Trump". TheHill. Archived from the original on January 4, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  34. ^ a b Ashley Killough & Clare Foran, House passes bill to reopen IRS and other financial agencies, despite veto threat, CNN (January 1, 2009).
  35. ^ a b The Latest: House passes bill to fund agencies amid shutdown, Associated Press (January 9, 2019).
  36. ^ Final Vote Results for Roll Call 21, Office of the Clerk, United States House of Representatives (January 9, 2019).
  37. ^ a b c Ashley Killough, House passes bills to reopen Agriculture, Transportation departments, CNN (January 10, 2019).
  38. ^ a b c d Lindsey McPherson, Republican defections on House spending bills to end shutdown tick up, Roll Call (January 10, 2019).
  39. ^ McPherson, Lindsey; McPherson, Lindsey (2019-01-11). "10 House Republicans cross aisle to support ending shutdown of Interior-Environment programs". Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  40. ^ Bresnahan, John; Ferris, Sarah (2019-01-07). "House GOP leaders fear support eroding for Trump's shutdown fight". Politico. Retrieved 2019-01-08.
  41. ^ Balluck, Kyle (2019-01-06). "House Democrats release bills to end shutdown". TheHill. Retrieved 2019-01-08.
  42. ^ Quigley, Mike (January 9, 2019). "H.R.264 - 116th Congress (2019-2020): Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2019". Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  43. ^ "House passes bill that would end shutdown, but Senate unlikely to take up". Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  44. ^ a b c d e "Trump ready for US shutdown to last 'for years'". BBC News. January 4, 2019. Archived from the original on January 4, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  45. ^ John Bresnahan; Burgess Everett (January 4, 2019). "McConnell keeps his head down as government shutdown drags on". Politico. Archived from the original on January 4, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  46. ^ Felicia Sonmez & Cat Zakrzewski, Pressure on Senate Republicans to break shutdown impasse grows, Washington Post (January 14, 2019).
  47. ^ Sheryl Gay Stolberg and Nicholas Fandos, McConnell Faces Pressure From Republicans to Stop Avoiding Shutdown Fight, New York Times (January 3, 2019).
  48. ^ a b c Nicholas Fandos; Michael Tackett (January 9, 2019). "Trump Storms Out of White House Meeting with Democrats on Shutdown". The New York Times. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  49. ^ Manu Raju; Clare Foran (January 9, 2019). "Cracks emerging among Senate Republicans as Murkowski calls for end to shutdown". CNN. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  50. ^ Swanson, Ian (2019-01-15). "McConnell blocks House bill to reopen government for second time". The Hill. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
  51. ^ a b c Annie Karni & Maggie Haberman, President Trump Rejects Proposal to Temporarily Reopen the Government, New York Times (January 14, 2019).
  52. ^ "Trump says he could keep shutdown going for months or years". CNN. January 4, 2019. Archived from the original on January 4, 2019. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  53. ^ "Trump says he is considering using emergency powers to build wall". CNN. January 4, 2019. Archived from the original on January 5, 2019. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  54. ^ "Trump to visit border, make prime-time speech in PR blitz for border wall". ABC News. 7 January 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  55. ^ "Major networks will carry Democratic response to Trump immigration speech". NBC News. 8 January 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  56. ^ a b c Philip Rucker & Felicia Sonmez, Trump calls wall only solution to 'growing humanitarian crisis' at border, Washington Post (January 8, 2019).
  57. ^ a b "Trump walks out of shutdown talks with a 'bye-bye'". BBC News. January 9, 2019. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  58. ^ Kessler, Glenn (January 15, 2019). "Analysis | What really happened in the White House Situation Room?". Washington Post. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
  59. ^ Burke, Michael (2019-01-10). "Trump: 'Cryin Chuck' Schumer lied about 'temper tantrum'". TheHill. Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  60. ^ Bowden, John (January 9, 2019). "Pence says Trump 'passed out candy' and didn't raise his voice in shutdown meeting". TheHill. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  61. ^ "Pelosi: Yesterday's White House meeting was staged so Trump "could walk out"". CNN. 10 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  62. ^ Jackson, David (January 14, 2019). "President Trump says he rejected plan to reopen the government to negotiate border wall". USA Today. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
  63. ^ Manu Raju (January 10, 2019). "Facing gridlock, GOP senators seek big immigration deal to end shutdown". CNN. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  64. ^ "Trump will offer to extend DACA protections in exchange for the wall, source says". CNN. 19 January 2019. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  65. ^ Collins, Michael (19 January 2019). "'It's anyone's guess what happens next': Democrats shoot down Trump's plan to end shutdown". USA Today. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  66. ^ Rascoe, Ayesha (19 January 2019). "Democrats Reject Trump Border Wall Proposal, Calling It A 'Non-Starter'". National Public Radio. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  67. ^ "Department of Homeland Security-Border Security Metrics Report-May 2018" (PDF). Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  68. ^ "U.S. Unauthorized Immigration Total Lowest in a Decade | Pew Research Center". Nov 27, 2018.
  69. ^ Michael Tackett, Trump Again Warns He May Declare National Emergency to Build Wall, New York Times (January 9, 2019).
  70. ^ a b c d Charlie Savage, Trump's Emergency Powers Threat Could End Shutdown Crisis, but at What Cost?, New York Times (January 9, 2018).
  71. ^ a b c Michael Tackett & Julie Hirschfeld Davis, White House Considers Using Storm Aid Funds as a Way to Pay for the Border Wall, New York Times (January 10, 2018).
  72. ^ Jordyn Phelps, Luis Martinez, Benjamin Siegel, Trump directs Army Corps of Engineers to find money to help fund border wall: Sources, ABC News (January 10, 2019).
  73. ^ a b Courtney Kube & Julia Ainsley, Trump could take billions from disaster areas to fund wall, NBC News (January 10, 2019).
  74. ^ Eli Watkins, Manu Raju and Elizabeth Landers, Trump: 'May declare a national emergency' to build wall, CNN (January 7, 2019).
  75. ^ Bruce Ackerman, No, Trump Cannot Declare an 'Emergency' to Build His Wall, New York Times (January 5, 2019).
  76. ^ "Trump says not in a rush to declare emergency in border wall fight". Reuters. 11 January 2019.
  77. ^ "Trump vents fury over Russia stories and again threatens national emergency". The Guardian. 12 January 2019.
  78. ^ Davis, Julie Hirschfeld; Fandos, Nicholas (January 16, 2019). "Pelosi Asks Trump to Reschedule State of the Union Amid Shutdown". The New York Times. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
  79. ^ Wang, Amy B. (January 16, 2019). "Will the State of the Union be postponed? That hasn't happened since the Challenger disaster". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
  80. ^ Davis, Julie Hirschfeld; Fandos, Nicholas (January 16, 2019). "Pelosi Asks Trump to Reschedule State of the Union Amid Shutdown". The New York Times. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
  81. ^ Karno, Annie (January 17, 2019). "Trump Hits Back at Pelosi, Threatening Her Trip to See Troops". The New York Times.
  82. ^ Kaufman, Ellie; Murphy, Paul P. (2019-01-02). "Federal employees prepare for a long shutdown". CNN. Retrieved 2019-01-19.
  83. ^ Bosman, Julie; Cohen, Patricia; Turkewitz, Julie (2019-01-11). "Federal Shutdown's Uneven Toll: Some Americans Are Devastated, Others Oblivious". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  84. ^ "Sample letters for creditors and mortgage companies". Archived from the original on January 1, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  85. ^ "U.S. House Passes Bill to Reopen Some Agencies Shut Down in Wall Fight". New York Times. 2019-01-11. Retrieved 2019-01-12.
  86. ^ "Federal workers miss first paycheck as shutdown poised to become longest in U.S. history". NBC News. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  87. ^ "Pay, Shutdown Procedures Complicated by Impending Holidays". Government Executive.
  88. ^ "Federal Workers Affected By Government Shutdown Turn To Unemployment Benefits |". Bankrate.
  89. ^ "Ethics Considerations, Including Outside Employment, During a Furlough". 2018-02-08. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
  90. ^ "Moonlighting Feds Could Be Risking Their Jobs". Retrieved 2019-01-16.
  91. ^ "Feds Impacted by Shutdown Can Roll Over 'Use-or-Lose' Leave, OPM Clarifies". Government Executive. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
  92. ^ "Use-or-Lose Leave and the Partial Shutdown". January 10, 2019. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
  93. ^ PM, Christina Zhao On 1/9/19 at 5:18 (2019-01-09). "Furloughed federal workers resort to crowdfunding as government shutdown drags on: "My mortgage is due"". Newsweek. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
  94. ^ "Feds' GoFundMe campaigns open a 'minefield' of ethical questions during shutdown". Federal News Network. 2019-01-08. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
  95. ^ Alex Lubben (December 27, 2018). "Government workers are sharing their #shutdownstories on social media. They're grim". Vice News. Archived from the original on December 28, 2018. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  96. ^ Mariana Alfaro (December 25, 2018). "Federal employees affected by the government shutdown are using the Twitter hashtag #ShutdownStories to share their hardships". MSN Business Insider. Archived from the original on December 30, 2018. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  97. ^ Taylor, As told to; rews (2019-01-11). "My Family Is Surviving on Canned Spaghetti Because of the Government Shutdown". Cosmopolitan. Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  98. ^ Ebbs, Stephanie (January 15, 2019). "Unpaid federal workers get help from food banks during government shutdown". ABC. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  99. ^ Sarah Harvard (December 28, 2018). "Trump admin suggests federal employees paint landlords' properties during shutdown to afford rent". The Independent. Archived from the original on December 29, 2018. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  100. ^ Doha Madani (December 27, 2018). "800,000 government workers may need financial assistance as shutdown continues". NBC News. Archived from the original on December 29, 2018. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  101. ^ "Coast Guard shutdown tip sheet suggests holding garage sale". WPVI-TV. 2019-01-11.
  102. ^ "While federal workers go without pay, senior Trump administration officials are poised to get $10,000 raises". Archived from the original on January 5, 2019. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  103. ^ Eric Yoder, Congress approves back pay — eventually — for furloughed federal employees, Washington Post (January 11, 2018).
  104. ^ Smith, Ian (January 10, 2019). "Senate Passes Bill to Pay Federal Employees After Shutdown". Archived from the original on January 15, 2019. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  105. ^ Vazquez, Maegan (January 16, 2019). "Trump signs law ensuring shutdown pay for government workers". CNN.
  106. ^ Stewart, Emily (14 January 2019). "The economic cost of the shutdown will soon be the cost of the wall". Vox. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  107. ^ Tankersley, Jim (January 16, 2019). "Shutdown's Economic Damage Starts to Pile Up, Threatening an End to Growth". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
  108. ^ a b McCartney, Robert (January 15, 2019). "Discord hits D.C. hard". Express.
  109. ^ Stewart, Ian (January 13, 2019). "As Shutdown Continues, Thousands Of Federal Workers Visit D.C.-Area Pop-Up Food Banks". NPR. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  110. ^ White, Ben (January 16, 2019). "Shutdown raises the risk of recession". Politico. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
  111. ^ Smith, Noah (January 16, 2019). "The Economy Can't Shrug Off the Shutdown Forever". Bloomburg. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
  112. ^ Liz Farmer, The Federal Shutdown's Impact on States and Localities, Governing (January 2, 2018).
  113. ^ Reid Wilson, States scramble to fill void left by federal shutdown, The Hill (January 17, 2019).
  114. ^ a b c "Fitch warns an extended shutdown could hurt the U.S. credit rating". Washington Post.
  115. ^ a b c Damian Paletta & Erica Werner (January 4, 2019). "Millions face delayed tax refunds, cuts to food stamps as White House scrambles to deal with shutdown's consequences". Washington Post.
  116. ^ Grace Segers. "Millions could face severe cuts to food stamps due to government shutdown". CBS News.
  117. ^ a b Maggie Fox, "Government shutdown stops FDA food safety inspections," NBC News, January 9, 2019
  118. ^ "Darryl Fears (4 January 2019) Three dead in national parks as shutdown wears on". Archived from the original on January 5, 2019. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  119. ^ "7 people have died in national parks since the shutdown began. But that's not unusual".
  120. ^ a b c "National parks face overflowing trash, toilets in second week of shutdown". ABC News. January 2, 2019. Archived from the original on January 2, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  121. ^ Blumberg, Antonia (January 4, 2019). "Death At National Park Unreported For Week Amid Government Shutdown: Report". Huffington Post. Retrieved January 6, 2019 – via Huff Post.
  122. ^ Joyce, Kathleen (January 1, 2019). "Overflowing garbage, feces on roads prompt Yosemite National Park officials to close some campgrounds". Fox News. Archived from the original on January 2, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  123. ^ "Operating Hours & Seasons - Statue Of Liberty National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)". National Park Service. Archived from the original on January 1, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  124. ^ Walker, Ameena (January 22, 2018). "Amy Plitt (22 January 2018) Statue of Liberty will remain open during government shutdown". Archived from the original on January 1, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  125. ^ "Shutdown Takes The Twinkle Out Of National Christmas Tree". Huff Post. Associated Press. December 25, 2018. Archived from the original on December 25, 2018. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
  126. ^ "Federal shutdown closes major portions of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks". Los Angeles Times. January 1, 2019.
  127. ^ "Shutdown nightmare: Park bathrooms overflowing with human waste, vandals causing damage, fighting over campsites". NBC News. Archived from the original on January 2, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  128. ^ Russo, Amy (January 12, 2019). "Vandals Topple Joshua Trees Amid Shutdown, Igniting Outrage". Retrieved January 13, 2019 – via Huff Post.
  129. ^ Government Shutdown Archived January 1, 2019, at the Wayback Machine., Big Bend National Park
  130. ^ "San Antonio Missions National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)". National Park Service. Archived from the original on November 26, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  131. ^ Carlson, Cheri (22 December 2018). "What shutdown means for Channel Islands National Park". Ventura County Star. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  132. ^ a b "The Smithsonian and the National Gallery held on as long as they could. They're closing". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 2, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  133. ^ Py-Lieberman, Beth. "Smithsonian Museums and the National Zoo Close for the U.S. Government Shutdown". Smithsonian. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  134. ^ Berman, Mark; Rein, Lisa (December 21, 2018). "What will happen if the government shuts down: Late paychecks, closed museums and more". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 21, 2018. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
  135. ^ Andrew Russeth, National Gallery of Art Closes to the Public, Latest Victim of U.S. Government Shutdown Archived January 3, 2019, at the Wayback Machine., ARTnews (January 3, 2019).
  136. ^ a b Haslett, Cheyenne (January 3, 2019). "'Oh my God, there's no people': National Mall scene a symbol of shutdown's impact". ABC News. Archived from the original on January 3, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  137. ^ "park-service-takes-extraordinary-step-dipping-into-entrance-fees-bolster-operations-popular-sites". Washington Post. January 6, 2019. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  138. ^ "How America's government shutdown is affecting flyers". The Economist. 2019-01-12. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2019-01-12.
  139. ^ NATCA v. USA, U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia, No. 1:19-cv-00062
  140. ^ "Air traffic controllers' union sues over unpaid work during..." Reuters. 2019-01-11. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  141. ^ The Associated Press (2019-01-12). "FAA Bringing Back Safety Inspectors Sidelined by Shutdown". US News. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  142. ^ Marsh, Rene (January 4, 2019). "First on CNN: Hundreds of TSA screeners, working without pay, calling out sick at major airports". CNN. CNN. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  143. ^ "Ante negativa de EU, México busca a Canadá y Europa para investigar accidente de Martha Erika" [After being turned down by the US, Mexico looks to Canada and Europe to investigate Martha Erika accident]. Animal Político. December 25, 2018. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  144. ^ "Peritos canadienses inician investigación de accidente en Puebla". Animal Político (in Spanish). 2018-12-28. Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  145. ^ "Shutdown impact: FBI pay, NTSB accident investigations". PBS NewsHour. 2019-01-10. Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  146. ^ a b c d Kaplan, Thomas (January 18, 2019). "Federal Courts, Running Out of Money, Brace for Shutdown's Pain" – via
  147. ^ a b "(January 7, 2019) Judiciary Operating on Limited Funds During Shutdown". Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  148. ^ Blum, Vanessa; January 18, Leigh Jones; PM, 2019 at 01:38. "Shutdown Meltdown: What It Means for Law Firms and the Courts".
  149. ^ "Antideficiency Act Resources". Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  150. ^ Scott Wong, Shutdown halts E-Verify checks Archived January 3, 2019, at the Wayback Machine., The Hill (January 2, 2019).
  151. ^ Robert Y. Maples, E-Verify and the Government Shutdown Archived January 3, 2019, at the Wayback Machine., National Law Review (January 3, 2019).
  152. ^ "US shutdown leaves websites insecure". BBC News. 2019-01-11. Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  153. ^ "DC to remain open during government shutdown". WTOP. December 23, 2018. Archived from the original on December 25, 2018. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
  154. ^ Taylor, Adam (December 26, 2018). "3 ways a U.S. government shutdown affects the rest of the world". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 26, 2018. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  155. ^ "FCC To Suspend Most Operations Thursday if the Partial Government Shutdown Continues - Slashdot". Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  156. ^ Federal Trade Commission Website Archived version of page version retried as of January 1, 2018 22:17 CST.
  157. ^ "ENERGY STAR | The simple choice for energy efficiency". Energy Star. Archived from the original on January 1, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  158. ^ Lang, Marissa (January 10, 2019). "'Pay the workers, furlough Trump': Federal workers rally at White House for end to shutdown". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  159. ^ Kasana, Mehreen. "5 Concrete Things You Can Do To Protest This Ongoing Government Shutdown". Bustle. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  160. ^ Tiefer, Charles. "The Lawsuit Challenging Trump's Shutdown Delayed Payment Arrangements Should Win". Forbes. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  161. ^ Brown, Ruth (2019-01-11). "Air traffic controllers sue Trump administration over government shutdown". New York Post. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  162. ^ Gore, Leada (January 11, 2019). "Is Congress paid during a government shutdown? What about the president?". Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  163. ^ Morgan Gstalter (December 22, 2018). "Dem senator vows to donate salary for each day of government shutdown". MSN. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  164. ^ a b Paulina Cachero (December 28, 2018). "Sen. Mazie Hirono donates salary to help federal employees in Hawaii amid 'unfair, completely unnecessary' government shutdown". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on December 29, 2018. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  165. ^ Naomi Jagoda (December 31, 2018). "Incoming Dem lawmaker to donate pay during shutdown". The Hill. Archived from the original on January 1, 2019. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  166. ^ a b Monica Hunter-Hart (December 30, 2018). "The Salary Mazie Hirono Earns During The Government Shutdown Will Be Donated To A Good Cause". Bustle. Archived from the original on December 29, 2018. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  167. ^ Caroline Kelly. "More than 70 members of Congress reject pay during shutdown". CNN. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
  168. ^ Tal Axelrod. "Here are the lawmakers who will forfeit their salaries during the shutdown". The Hill. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
  169. ^ Agiesta, Jennifer (January 13, 2019). "CNN Poll: Trump bears most blame for shutdown". CNN. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
  170. ^ Sinozich, Sofi. "Trump, GOP blamed for shutdown; no crisis seen but fewer oppose wall (POLL)". ABC News. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  171. ^ a b c Rakich, Nathaniel (2019-01-04). "The Public Blamed Trump For The Shutdown — But That May Be Changing". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  172. ^ a b Silver, Nate (2019-01-17). "The Shutdown Is Hurting Trump's Approval Rating. But Will It Hurt Him in 2020?". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 2019-01-17.
  173. ^ Golshan, Tara (2018-12-27). "Trump's approval rating drops to Charlottesville levels during shutdown". Vox. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  174. ^ Cohn, Nate (2019-01-12). "As Trump Sticks With His Wall, His Ratings Stay Stuck in Place". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  175. ^ Clement, Scott; Balz, Dan (2019-01-13). "Americans blame Trump and GOP much more than Democrats for shutdown, Post-ABC poll finds". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2019-01-15.
  176. ^ "Majority of Americans blame Trump for the shutdown". PBS NewsHour. January 15, 2019. Retrieved January 16, 2019.