Tutong language

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Tutong
Tutong 2
RegionBrunei
Native speakers
17,000 (2006)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3ttg
Glottologtuto1241[2]

The Tutong language, also known as Tutong 2, is a language spoken by approximately 17,000 people in Brunei. It is the main language of the Tutong people, the majority ethnic group in the Tutong District of Brunei.

Classification[edit]

Tutong is an Austronesian language and belongs to the Rejang-Baram group of languages spoken in Brunei as well as Kalimantan, Indonesia, and Sarawak, Malaysia.[3] Tutong is related to the Belait language and roughly 54% of the words come from a common root.[4]

Language use[edit]

Today, many speakers of Tutong are shifting away from the traditional language and code-mix or code-shift with Brunei Malay, Standard Malay and English.[5] The language has been given a vitality rating of 2.5 based on a scale of 0-6 that uses the measures of the rate of transmission to future generations, the level of official support, and the geographical concentration of speakers.[3][6] This means it is considered endangered.

Nonetheless, there is interest in revitalizing the language. Since 2012, a module has been taught in Tutong at Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD).[7] Similarly, the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (Brunei's Language Agency) published a Tutong-Malay, Malay-Tutong dictionary in 1991 and a word list of several Brunei languages in 2011.[3][7]

Resources[edit]

  • Haji Ramlee Tunggal. 2005. Struktur Bahasa Tutong. Bandar Seri Begawan: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Brunei.
  • Noor Azam OKMB Haji-Othman. 2005. Changes in the linguistic diversity of Negara Brunei Darussalam: An ecological perspective. Leicester: University of Leicester dissertation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tutong at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tutong". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b c Martin, Peter W. (1995). "Whiter the Indigenous Languages of Brunei Darussalam?". Oceanic Linguistics. 34 (1): 27. doi:10.2307/3623110.
  4. ^ Nothofer, Bernd. 1991 . The languages of Brunei Darussalam. In H. Steinhauer (ed.) Papers in Austronesian Linguistics. Pacific Linguistics A-81:1
  5. ^ Clynes, Adrian. "Dominant Language Transfer in Minority Language Documentation Projects: Some Examples from Brunei". Language Documentation and Conservation. 6: 253–267. hdl:10125/4539.
  6. ^ Coluzzi, Paolo (2010). "Endangered Languages in Borneo: A Survey among the Iban and Murut (Lun Bawang) in Temburong, Brunei". Oceanic Linguistics. 49 (1): 119–143. doi:10.1353/ol.0.0063.
  7. ^ a b McLellan, James (2014). "Strategies for revitalizing endangered Borneo languages: A comparison between Negara Brunei Darussalam and Sarawak, Malaysia" (PDF). Southeast Asia: A Multidisciplinary Journal. 14: 14–22.