Talal of Jordan
Talal in 1951
|King of Jordan|
|Reign||20 July 1951 – 11 August 1952|
|Coronation||20 July 1951|
|Born||26 February 1909|
Mecca, Ottoman Empire
|Died||7 July 1972 (aged 63)|
|Burial||7 July 1972|
Raghadan Palace, Jordan
Zein Al-Sharaf (m. 1934)
|Father||Abdullah I of Jordan|
|Mother||Musbah bint Nasser|
Talal bin Abdullah (Arabic: طلال بن عبد الله, Ṭalāl ibn ʿAbdullāh; 26 February 1909 – 7 July 1972) was King of Jordan from the assassination of his father, King Abdullah I, on 20 July 1951, until he was forced to abdicate on 11 August 1952. According to Talal, he was a 39th-generation direct descendant of Muhammad as he belongs to the Hashemite family—who have ruled Jordan since 1921.
Talal was born in Mecca as the eldest child of Abdullah and his wife Musbah bint Nasser. Abdullah was son of Hussein bin Ali, the Sharif of Mecca, who led the Great Arab Revolt during World War I against the Ottoman Empire in 1916. After removing Ottoman rule, Abdullah established the Emirate of Transjordan in 1921, which became a British Protectorate, and ruled as its Emir. During Abdullah's absence, Talal spent his early years alone with his mother. Talal received private education in Amman, later joining Transjordan's Arab Legion as second lieutenant in 1927. He then became aide to his grandfather Sharif Hussein, the ousted King of the Hejaz, during his exile in Cyprus. By 1948, Talal became a general in the Arab Legion.
Abdullah sought independence in 1946, and the Emirate became the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Talal became Crown Prince upon his father's designation as King of Jordan. Abdullah was assassinated in Jerusalem in 1951, and Talal became King. Talal's most revered achievement as King is the establishment of Jordan's modern constitution in 1952, rendering his kingdom as a constitutional monarchy. He ruled for less than thirteen months until he was forced to abdicate by Parliament due to mental illness—reported as schizophrenia. Talal spent the rest of his life at a sanatorium in Istanbul and died there on 7 July 1972. He was succeeded by his oldest son Hussein.
He was born in Mecca as the eldest child of Abdullah, an Arab deputy of Mecca in the Ottoman Parliament, and his wife Musbah bint Nasser. Abdullah was the son of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Sharif Hussein and his sons led the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire in 1916; after removing Ottoman rule, the Sharif's sons established Arab monarchies in place. Abdullah established the Emirate of Transjordan in 1921, a British Protectorate, for which he was Emir. During Abdullah's absence, Talal spent his early years alone with his mother. Talal received private education in Amman, later joining Transjordan's Arab Legion as second lieutenant in 1927. He then became aide to his grandfather Sharif Hussein, the ousted King of the Hejaz, during his exile in Cyprus. By 1948, Talal became a general in the Army.
He was educated privately before attending the British Army's Royal Military College, Sandhurst, from which he graduated in 1929 when he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Cavalry Regiment of the Arab Legion. His regiment was attached to a British regiment in Jerusalem and also to the Royal Artillery in Baghdad.
Talal ascended the Jordanian throne after the assassination of his father, Abdullah I, in Jerusalem. His son Hussein, who was accompanying his grandfather at Friday prayers, was also a near victim. On 20 July 1951, Prince Hussein travelled to Jerusalem to perform Friday prayers at the Al-Aqsa Mosque with his grandfather, King Abdullah I. An assassin, fearing that the king might normalise relations with the State of Israel, killed Abdullah, but the 15-year-old Hussein survived.
During his short reign he was responsible for the formation of a liberalised constitution for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, which made the government collectively, and the ministers individually, responsible before the Jordanian Parliament. The constitution was ratified on 1 January 1952. King Talal is also judged as having done much to smooth the previously strained relations between Jordan and the neighbouring Arab states of Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
Illness, death and funeral
In 1934, Talal married his first cousin Zein al-Sharaf Talal who bore him four sons and two daughters:
- King Hussein (14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999).
- Princess Asma, died at birth in 1937.
- Prince Muhammad (born 2 October 1940).
- Prince Hassan (born 20 March 1947).
- Prince Muhsin, deceased.
- Princess Basma (born 11 May 1951).
Titles and honours
King Talal of Jordan
|Reference style||His Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Majesty|
- 26 February 1909 – 25 May 1946: His Royal Highness Prince Talal of Jordan
- 25 May 1946 – 20 July 1951: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Jordan
- 20 July 1951 – 11 August 1952: His Majesty The King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
- Honorary Lieutenant in the Transjordan Frontier Force(1932)
- Honorary Major General in the Arab Legion (1949)
- Field Marshal in the Arab Legion (1951)
- Grand Collar of the Order of the Hashemites (1951)
- Grand Master of the Order of al-Hussein bin Ali (1951)
- Grand Master of the Supreme Order of the Renaissance (1951)
- Grand Master of the Order of Independence (1951)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Talal of Jordan.|
- "Ex‐King Talal of Jordan Dies; Abdicated in '52 in Favor of Son". New York Times. Associated Press. July 9, 1972. p. 51. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- "Schizophrenia," Time Magazine, 18 August 1952
- Jordan Royal Ark
- Elliot House, Karen (6 September 2008). "The Art of Middle East Survival". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- Kamal Salibi (15 December 1998). The Modern History of Jordan. I.B.Tauris. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
- "Family tree". alhussein.gov. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
- Boletín Oficial del Estado
Talal of JordanBorn: 26 February 1909
| King of Jordan