Starlink (satellite constellation)
Starlink is a satellite constellation development project underway by American company SpaceX, to develop a low-cost, high-performance satellite bus and requisite customer ground transceivers to implement a new space-based Internet communication system. SpaceX also plans to sell satellites that use a satellite bus that may be used for military, scientific or exploratory purposes.
SpaceX has plans to deploy nearly 12,000 satellites in three orbital shells by the mid-2020s: initially placing approximately 1600 in a 550-kilometer (340 mi)-altitude shell, subsequently placing ~2800 Ku- and Ka-band spectrum satellites at 1,150 km (710 mi) and ~7500 V-band satellites at 340 km (210 mi). The total cost of the decade-long project to design, build and deploy such a network is estimated at nearly US$10 billion.
Product development began in 2015, and two prototype test-flight satellites were launched in February 2018. A second set of test satellites and the first large deployment of a piece of the constellation occurred on 24 May 2019 (UTC) when the first 60 operational satellites were launched. Initial commercial operation of the constellation could begin in 2020.
The SpaceX satellite development facility in Redmond, Washington, houses the research, development, manufacturing and on-orbit control operations for the satellite Internet project.
The communication satellite network SpaceX envisions was publicly announced in January 2015, with the projected design capability to support sufficient bandwidth to carry up to 50% of all backhaul communications traffic, and up to 10% of local Internet traffic, in high-density cities. CEO Elon Musk said that there is significant unmet demand for low-cost global broadband capabilities.
The opening of the SpaceX satellite development facility in Redmond was announced by SpaceX in January 2015 with partners, to develop and build out the new communication network. At the time, the Seattle-area office planned to initially hire approximately 60 engineers, and potentially 1,000 people over the next several years. The company operated in 2,800 square meters (30,000 sq ft) of leased space by late 2016, and by January 2017 had taken on a 3,800 square meters (40,625 sq ft) second facility, both in Redmond. In August 2018, SpaceX consolidated all their Seattle-area operations with a move to a larger three-building facility at Redmond Ridge Corporate Center to support satellite manufacturing in addition to R&D.
In July 2016, SpaceX acquired a 740 square meters (8,000 sq ft) creative space in Irvine, California (Orange County). SpaceX job listings indicated the Irvine office would include signal processing, RFIC, and ASIC development for the satellite program.
By January 2016, the company had publicly disclosed plans to have two prototype satellites flying in 2016, and have the initial satellite constellation in orbit and operational by approximately 2020. By October 2016, SpaceX had developed the initial satellites that they hoped to launch and test in 2017, but the satellite division was focusing on a significant business challenge of achieving a sufficiently low-cost design for the user equipment, aiming for something that can ostensibly install easily at end-user premises for approximately US$200. Overall, SpaceX President Gwynne Shotwell said then that the project remained in the "design phase as the company seeks to tackle issues related to user-terminal cost." Deployment, if carried out, would not be until "late in this decade or early in the next." The two original test satellites were not flown, and were used only in ground testing. The planned launch of two revised satellites was moved to 2018.
By March 2017, SpaceX filed plans with the FCC to field a second orbital shell of more than 7500 "V-band satellites in non-geosynchronous orbits to provide communications services" in an electromagnetic spectrum that has not previously been heavily employed for commercial communications services. Called the "V-band low-Earth orbit (VLEO) constellation," it would consist of 7,518 satellites and would orbit at just 340 kilometres (210 mi) altitude, while the smaller originally-planned group of 4,425 satellites would operate in the Ka- and Ku-bands and orbit at 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) altitude. SpaceX plans were unusual in two areas: the company intended to use the little-used V band of the communications spectrum, and also intended to operationally use a new orbital regime, the very-low Earth orbit regime of ~340 km altitude, where atmospheric drag is quite high – normally resulting in short orbital lifetimes. SpaceX has not made public the specific spaceflight technology they intend to use to deal with the high-drag environment of VLEO. The March 2017 plan called for SpaceX to launch test satellites of the initial Ka/Ku type in both 2017 and 2018, and begin launching the operational constellation in 2019. Full build-out of the ~1200 km constellation of ~4,440 sats was not then expected to be completed until 2024.
Some controversy arose in 2015–2017 with regulatory authorities on licensing of the communications spectrum for these large constellations of satellites. The traditional and historical regulatory rule for licensing spectrum has been that satellite operators could "launch a single spacecraft to meet their in-service deadline [from the regulator], a policy seen as allowing an operator to block the use of valuable radio spectrum for years without deploying its fleet." By 2017, the US regulatory authority (FCC) had set a six-year deadline to have an entire large constellation deployed to comply with licensing terms. The international regulator, International Telecommunication Union, proposed in mid-2017 a guideline that would be considerably less restrictive. In September 2017, both Boeing and SpaceX petitioned the US FCC for a waiver of the 6-year rule, but that was ultimately not granted. By 2019, the FCC had set the rule to be that half of the constellation must be in orbit in six years, with the full system in orbit by nine years from the date of the license.
SpaceX filed documents in late 2017 with the US FCC to clarify their space debris mitigation plan. The company will "implement an operations plan for the orderly de-orbit of satellites nearing the end of their useful lives (roughly five to seven years) at a rate far faster than is required under international standards. [Satellites] will de-orbit by propulsively moving to a disposal orbit from which they will reenter the Earth's atmosphere within approximately one year after completion of their mission." In March 2018, the FCC issued SpaceX approval with some conditions. SpaceX would need to obtain a separate approval from the ITU. The FCC supported a NASA request to ask SpaceX to achieve an even higher level of de-orbiting reliability than the standard that NASA had previously used for itself: reliably deorbiting 90% of the satellites after their missions are complete.
In May 2018, SpaceX expected the total cost of development and buildout of the constellation to approach US$10 billion. In mid-2018, SpaceX reorganized the satellite development division in Redmond, and fired several members of senior management.
In November 2018, SpaceX received US regulatory approval to deploy 7,518 broadband satellites, in addition to the 4,425 approved earlier. SpaceX's initial 4,425 satellites had been requested in the 2016 regulatory filings to orbit at altitudes of 1,110-kilometer (690 mi) to 1,325-kilometer (823 mi), well above the ISS. The new approval was for the addition of a very-low Earth orbit NGSO [non-geostationary satellite orbit] constellation, consisting of 7,518 satellites operating at altitudes from 335-kilometer (208 mi) to 346-kilometer (215 mi), below the ISS. Also in November, SpaceX made new regulatory filings with the US FCC to request the ability to alter its previously granted license in order to operate approximately 1,600 of the 4,425 Ka-/ Ku-band satellites approved for operation at 1,150 km (710 mi) in a "new lower shell of the constellation" at only 550 km (340 mi) orbital altitude. These satellites would effectively operate in a third orbital shell, a 550-kilometer (340 mi) orbit, while the higher and lower orbits at ~1,200-kilometer (750 mi) and ~340-kilometer (210 mi) would be used only later, once a considerably larger deployment of satellites becomes possible in the later years of the deployment process. The FCC approved the request in April 2019, giving approval to place nearly 12,000 satellites in three orbital shells: initially approximately 1,600 in a 550-kilometer (340 mi)-altitude shell, and subsequently placing ~2800 Ku- and Ka-band spectrum satellites at 1,150 km (710 mi) and ~7500 V-band satellites at 340 km (210 mi).
With plans by several providers to build commercial space-Internet mega-constellations of thousands of satellites increasing likely to become a reality, the US military began to perform test studies in 2018 to evaluate how the networks might be used. In December, the US Air Force issued a US$28 million contract for specific test services on Starlink.
In February 2019, a sister company of SpaceX, SpaceX Services, Inc., filed a request with the US Federal Communications Commission to request a license for the operation of up to 1,000,000 fixed satellite earth stations that will communicate with its non-geostationary orbit satellite (NGSO) Starlink system.
By April 2019, SpaceX was transitioning their satellite efforts from R&D to manufacturing, with the planned first launch of a large batch of satellites to orbit, and the clear need to achieve an average launch rate of "44 high-performance, low-cost spacecraft built and launched every month for the next 60 months" to get the 2,200 satellites launched to support their FCC spectrum allocation license assignment. SpaceX has said they will meet the deadline of having half the constellation "in orbit within six years of authorization ... and the full system in nine years."
|Phase||Orbit shells (km)||Number of satellites||Inclination
|Half size contractual completion time||Full size contractual completion time||Current completion (23 May 2019)|
|550||1,584||53||March 2024||March 2027||62|
|335.9||2,493||42||November 2024||November 2027||0|
The deployment of the first 1,584 satellites will be into 24 orbital planes of 66 satellites each, with a requested lower minimum elevation angle of beams to improve reception: 25 degrees rather than the 40 degrees of the other two orbital shells.:17 SpaceX launched the first 60 satellites of the constellation in May 2019 into a 450 km orbit and expected up to six launches in 2019 at that time, with 720 satellites for continuous coverage in 2020.
|Flight №||Date and time (UTC)||Launch site||Launch vehicle[a]||Orbit altitude (km)||Inclination||Number deployed||Outcome|
|1||February 22, 2018 14:17||Vandenberg||F9 FT ♺ B1038.2||514||97.44°||2||Success|
|Two test satellites known as Tintin A and B (MicroSat-2a and 2b) that were deployed as co-payloads to the Paz satellite.|
|2||May 24, 2019 02:30
|CCAFS SLC-40||F9 B5 ♺ B1049.3||440 to 550||~53°||60||Success|
|Second launch of test satellites for SpaceX's Starlink constellation. Said to be "production design", these will be used to test various aspects of the network, including deorbiting. They will not have satellite interlink capabilities and will only be able to communicate with stationary ground antennas.
A day after launch an amateur astronomer in the Netherlands was one of the first to publish a video showing the satellites flying across the sky as a "train" of bright lights.
|3||2019 (TBD)||CC 39A or 40||F9 B5||TBD||Planned|
|4||2019 (TBD)||CC 39A or 40||F9 B5||TBD||Planned|
Global broadband Internet
SpaceX intends to provide broadband internet connectivity to underserved areas of the planet, as well as provide competitively-priced service to urban areas. The company has stated that the positive cashflow from selling satellite internet services would be necessary to fund their Mars plans.
In early 2015, two space entrepreneurs announced Internet satellite ventures in the same week. In addition to SpaceX CEO Elon Musk announcing the project that would later be named Starlink, serial-entrepreneur Richard Branson announced an investment in OneWeb, a similar constellation with approximately 700 satellites that had already procured communication frequency licenses for their broadcast spectrum.
After the failures of previous satellite-to-consumer space ventures, satellite industry consultant Roger Rusch said in 2015 "It's highly unlikely that you can make a successful business out of this." Musk publicly acknowledged that business reality, and indicated in mid-2015 that while endeavoring to develop this technically-complicated space-based communication system he wanted to avoid overextending the company, and stated that they are being measured in their pace of development. Nevertheless, internal documents leaked in February 2017 indicated that SpaceX expected more than US$30 billion in revenue by 2025 from its satellite constellation, while revenues from its launch business were expected to reach US$5 billion in the same year.
In February 2015, financial analysts questioned established geosynchronous orbit communications satellite fleet operators as to how they intend to respond to the competitive threat of SpaceX/Google and OneWeb LEO communication satellites.[needs update] In October, SpaceX President Gwynne Shotwell indicated that while development continues, the business case for the long-term rollout of an operational satellite network was still in an early phase.
In 2015, court documents indicate that SpaceX had engaged in collaboration with wireless chip-maker Broadcom. Five key engineers subsequently left to join SpaceX, leading to a lawsuit filed by Broadcom alleging that "SpaceX stole our best minds." In March, an Orange County judge denied Broadcom's multiple restraining order requests.[needs update]
With the initial launch of the first 60 satellites of the operational constellation in 2019, SpaceX indicated that it would require 420 sats in the constellation to achieve minor broadband coverage of Earth, and 780 of the first ~1600 to provide moderate coverage.
Use beyond Earth
The Internet communication satellites were expected to be in the smallsat-class of 100-to-500 kg (220-to-1,100 lb)-mass, and were intended to be in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) at an altitude of approximately 1,100 kilometers (680 mi), according to early public releases of information in 2015. In the event, the first large deployment of 60 satellites in May 2019 were 227 kilograms (500 lb) and SpaceX decided to place the satellites at a relatively low 550 kilometers (340 mi), due to concerns about the space environment. Initial plans as of January 2015[update] were for the constellation to be made up of approximately 4,000 cross-linked satellites, more than twice as many operational satellites as were in orbit in January 2015.
The satellites will employ optical inter-satellite links and phased array beam-forming and digital processing technologies in the Ku and Ka bands, according to documents filed with the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). While specifics of the phased array technologies have been disclosed as part of the frequency application, SpaceX enforced confidentiality regarding details of the optical inter-satellite links, other than that they will utilize frequencies above 10,000 GHz.
The satellites will be mass-produced, at a much lower cost per unit of capability than existing satellites. Musk said, "We’re going to try and do for satellites what we’ve done for rockets." "In order to revolutionize space, we have to address both satellites and rockets." "Smaller satellites are crucial to lowering the cost of space-based Internet and communications."
In February 2015, SpaceX asked the FCC to consider future innovative uses of the Ka-band spectrum before the FCC commits to 5G communications regulations that would create barriers to entry, since SpaceX is a new entrant to the satellite communications market. The SpaceX non-geostationary orbit communications satellite constellation will operate in the high-frequency bands above 24 GHz, "where steerable earth station transmit antennas would have a wider geographic impact, and significantly lower satellite altitudes magnify the impact of aggregate interference from terrestrial transmissions."
The system will not compete with the Iridium satellite constellation, which is designed to link directly to handsets. Instead, it will be linked to flat user terminals the size of a pizza box, which will have phased array antennas and track the satellites. The terminals can be mounted anywhere, as long as they can see the sky.
Internet traffic via a geostationary satellite has a minimum theoretical round-trip latency of at least 477 ms (between user and ground gateway), but in practice, current satellites have latencies of 600 ms or more. Starlink satellites would orbit at 1⁄30 to 1⁄105 of the height of geostationary orbits, and thus offer more practical Earth-to-sat latencies of around 25 to 35 ms, comparable to existing cable and fiber networks The system will use a peer-to-peer protocol claimed to be "simpler than IPv6", it will also incorporate end-to-end encryption natively. Although no details have been as yet released.
Starlink satellites use Hall-effect thrusters with krypton gas as the reaction mass for orbit raising and station keeping. Krypton Hall thrusters tend to exhibit significantly higher erosion of the flow channel compared to a similar electric propulsion system operated with xenon, but at a lower propellant cost.
Prototype development and testing
At the time of the June 2015 announcement, SpaceX had stated plans to launch the first two demonstration satellites in 2016, but the target date was subsequently moved out to 2018. SpaceX began flight testing their satellite technologies in 2018 with the launch of two test satellites. The two identical satellites were called MicroSat-2a and MicroSat-2b during development but were renamed Tintin A and Tintin B upon orbital deployment in February 2018. Two previously manufactured satellites, MicroSat-1a and MicroSat-1b were meant to be launched together as secondary payloads on one of the Iridium-NEXT flights, but they were instead used for ground-based tests.
MicroSat 1a & 1b were originally slated to be launched into 625 km circular orbits at approximately 86.4 degrees inclination, and to include panchromatic video imager cameras to film images of Earth and the satellite.
Tintin A and B were inserted into a 514 km orbit. Per FCC filings they were intended to raise themselves to an 1125 km orbit, the operational altitude for StarLink LEO satellites per the earliest regulatory filings, but stayed close to their original orbits. SpaceX announced in November 2018 that they would like to operate an initial shell of about 1,600 satellites in the constellation at about 550 km orbital altitude, at an altitude similar to the orbits Tintin A and B stayed in.:17
The satellites currently orbit in a circular low Earth orbit at about 500 kilometers (310 mi) altitude in a high-inclination orbit for a planned six to twelve-month duration. The satellites will communicate with three testing ground stations in Washington and California for short-term experiments of less than ten minutes duration, roughly daily.
The 60 Starlink v0.9 satellites, launched May 2019, have the following characteristics:
- Flat-panel design with multiple high-throughput antennas and a single solar array
- Mass: 227 kg (500 lb)
- Hall-effect thrusters using krypton as the reaction mass, for position adjustment on orbit, altitude maintenance and deorbit
- Star tracker navigation system for precision pointing
- Capability for tracking on-orbit debris[better source needed] and autonomous collision avoidance
- Operational altitude of 550 km (340 mi)
- 95 percent of "all components of this design will quickly burn in Earth’s atmosphere at the end of each satellite’s lifecycle"
Competition and market effects
In addition to the OneWeb constellation, announced nearly concurrently with the SpaceX constellation, a 2015 proposal from Samsung has outlined a 4,600-satellite constellation orbiting at 1,400 kilometers (900 mi) that could provide a zettabyte per month capacity worldwide, an equivalent of 200 gigabytes per month for 5 billion users of Internet data. Telesat announced a smaller 117 satellite constellation in 2015 and plans to deliver initial service in 2021. Amazon announced a large broadband internet satellite constellation in April 2019, planning to launch 3,236 satellites in the next decade in what the company calls "Project Kuiper", a satellite constellation that will work in concert with Amazon's previously-announced large network of 12 satellite ground station facilities (the "AWS Ground Station unit") announced in November 2018.
By October 2017, the expectation for large increases in satellite network capacity from emerging lower-altitude broadband constellations caused market players to cancel investments in new geosynchronous orbit broadband communications satellites.
The large number of planned satellites have been met with criticism from the astronomical community. Astronomers claim that the number of visible satellites will outnumber visible stars, and that their brightness in both optical and radio wavelengths will severely impact scientific observations. Since the Starlink satellites can autonomously change their orbits, their motion will be hard to compensate for. The International Astronomical Union and National Radio Astronomy Observatory have also released official statements expressing concern on the matter. However, these organizations also stated that the impact of large constellations of satellites has not been quantitatively estimated.
While SpaceX representatives and Musk stated that the satellites will have minimal impact, many professional astronomers have disputed these claims based on initial observation of the Starlink v0.9 satellites on the first launch, shortly after their deployment from the launch vehicle. In later statements on Twitter, Musk has reassured the astronomical community that SpaceX will work on reducing the albedo of the satellites and will provide on-demand orientation adjustments for astronomical experiments, if necessary.
- Globalstar – an operational low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite constellation for satellite phone and low-speed data communications
- Iridium satellite constellation – an operational constellation of 66 active LEO satellites for global satellite phone service
- OneWeb satellite constellation – an under-construction LEO satellite constellation, to provide global Internet broadband service to individual consumers from 2020
- ORBCOMM – an operational constellation used to provide global asset monitoring and messaging services from its constellation of 29 LEO communications satellites orbiting at 775 km
- Teledesic – a former (1990s) venture to accomplish broadband satellite Internet services
- ViaSat Communications – offers an operational Internet service from four geostationary satellites
- Laser communication in space – key technology used to establish the inter-satellite links of the Starlink constellation
- O3b Networks – medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellite constellation primarily intended to provide voice and data to mobile operators and Internet service providers, and is a wholly owned subsidiary of SES S.A
- Falcon 9 first-stage boosters are designated with a construction serial number and an optional flight number when reused, e.g. B1021.1 and B1021.2 represent the two flights of booster B1021. Launches using reused boosters are denoted with a recycled symbol ♺.
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SpaceX pointed out that it recently announced plans to build a network of 4,000 non-geostationary orbit (NGSO) communications satellites, which it will manufacture, launch and operate.
- Brodkin, Jon (14 February 2018). "SpaceX hits two milestones in plan for low-latency satellite broadband". Ars Technica. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
- Elon Musk [@elonmusk] (25 February 2018). "Will be simpler than IPv6 and have tiny packet overhead. Definitely peer-to-peer" (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2018 – via Twitter.
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KHT - KRYPTON HALL THRUSTERS - IDENTIFICATION, EVALUATION AND TESTING OF ALTERNATIVE PROPELLANTS FOR ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS. Proejct KHT. European Space Agency. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
The overall outcome is that propellant different from xenon can provide significant economic benefits in the long term for commercial telecom applications. In particular, krypton would allow for a major reduction of qualification and operation costs with minor performance drawbacks.
- "MicroSat 2a, 2b (Tintin A, B)". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
- "MicroSat 1a, 1b". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
- "SpaceX presentation at NOAA" (PDF).
- Tintin A and Tintin B at n2yo.com
- Kang, Cecilia; Davenport, Christian (9 June 2015). "SpaceX founder files with government to provide Internet service from space" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
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- Khan, Farooq (2015). "Mobile Internet from the Heavens". arXiv:1508.02383 [cs.NI].
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- McCaughrean, Mark [@markmccaughrean] (25 May 2019). "If predictions are correct that 400–500 Starlink satellites about that bright will also be visible *all the time*" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Mack, Katie [@AstroKatie] (25 May 2019). "Musk's offhand "they can't be seen at night" is not true or reassuring" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Lomax, Jamie [@jrlomax] (25 May 2019). "Even if they were only visible at dusk and dawn as claimed, they would still affect our data because we take calibrations then" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Parker, Alex [@Alex_Parker] (25 May 2019). "At midsummer midnight in Seattle, I estimate about 500 of them will both be above the horizon and directly illuminated by the sun" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Musk, Elon [@elonmusk] (27 May 2019). "Sent a note to Starlink team last week specifically regarding albedo reduction. We'll get a better sense of value of this when satellites have raised orbits & arrays are tracking to sun" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Musk, Elon [@elonmusk] (27 May 2019). "If we need to tweak sat orientation to minimize solar reflection during critical astronomical experiments, that's easily done" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- FCC FORM 442 – FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION APPLICATION FOR NEW OR MODIFIED RADIO STATION UNDER PART 5 OF FCC RULES – EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE, SpaceX, 29 May 2015 application for communications spectrum allocation for technology development and testing flights beginning as early as 2015.
- Official Starlink Website
- Starlink Satellite Locations