The Technology Portal
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument [compensation ] of those who pursue them" .
- Principle is a term defined current-day by Merriam-Webster as: "a comprehensive and fundamental law, doctrine, or assumption", "a primary source", "the laws or facts of nature underlying the working of an artificial device", "an ingredient (such as a chemical) that exhibits or imparts a characteristic quality".
- Process is a term defined current-day by the United States Patent Laws (United States Code Title 34 - Patents) published by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) as follows: "The term 'process' means process, art, or method, and includes a new use of a known process, machine, manufacture, composition of matter, or material."
- Nomenclature is term defined by Merriam-Webster as: "name, designation", "the act or process or an instance of naming", "a system or set of terms or symbols especially in a particular science, discipline, or art" .
- Application of Science is a term defined current-day by the United States' National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine as: "...any use of scientific knowledge for a specific purpose, whether to do more science; to design a product, process, or medical treatment; to develop a new technology; or to predict the impacts of human actions."
The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale.
Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions of the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition.
is an international computer
with 2005 global sales
42.64 billion and more than 63,000 employees in 102 countries and regions that develop, manufacture, license
, and support
a wide range of software products
for computing devices. Headquartered in Redmond, Washington
, its most popular products are the Microsoft Windows operating system
and the Microsoft Office suite
of productivity software, each of which has achieved near ubiquity in the desktop computer
market. Microsoft possesses footholds in other markets, with assets such as the MSNBC cable television network
, the MSN Internet portal
, and the Microsoft Encarta multimedia
encyclopedia. The company also markets both computer hardware
products such as the Microsoft mouse
, as well as home entertainment products such as the Xbox
, the Xbox 360
, and MSN TV
In this month
- 17 June 1946 – The first telephone call using the Mobile Telephone Service, a precursor to the cellular phone, is made in St. Louis, Missouri
- 20 June 2003 – The Wikimedia Foundation (logo pictured), the non-profit that operates Wikipedia and its sister projects, is founded in St. Petersburg, Florida
- 28 June 1972 – Atari, a pioneer in arcade games, home video game consoles, and home computers, is founded as Atari, Inc.
- 28 June 2006 – The Series of tubes speech is delivered by then-United States Senator Ted Stevens to describe the Internet and defend the Senator's opposition to network neutrality
Did you know...
(1728–1809) was an English manufacturer
and the partner of engineer James Watt
. In the final quarter of the 18th century, the partnership installed hundreds of Boulton & Watt steam engines
, which were a great advance on the state of the art, making possible the mechanisation of factories and mills. He became associated partner with James Watt when Watt's business partner, John Roebuck
, was unable to pay a debt to Boulton, who accepted Roebuck's share of Watt's patent
as settlement. He then successfully lobbied Parliament
to extend Watt's patent for an additional seventeen years, enabling the firm to market Watt's steam engine
. Boulton applied modern techniques to the minting of coins, striking millions of pieces for Britain and other countries, and supplying the Royal Mint
with up-to-date equipment. Boulton was a key member of the Lunar Society
, a group of Birmingham-area men prominent in the arts, sciences, and theology. Members included Boulton, Watt, Erasmus Darwin
, Josiah Wedgwood
, and Joseph Priestley
. Members of the Society have been given credit for developing concepts and techniques in science, agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transportation that laid the groundwork for the Industrial Revolution
and for later discoveries, including the theory of evolution
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