The Geography Portal
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. The first person to use the word "γεωγραφία" was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC). Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of the Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be.
Geography is often defined in terms of the two branches of human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere.
The four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, and the Earth sciences. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences".
The Commonwealth of Australia
is a country in the Oceania
region of the southern hemisphere
, consisting of the world's smallest continent
, the island of Tasmania
, and over eight thousand smaller islands
. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area
. Australia has been inhabited for about 50,000 years by Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander
peoples. After discovery by Dutch
explorers in 1606, Eastern Australia was claimed by the British
in 1770, and officially settled as a British penal colony
in 1788. As the population grew and new areas were explored, six largely self-governing Crown colonies
were established within Australia over the course of the 19th century. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated
and the Commonwealth of Australia was formed. Since federation, Australia has had a stable liberal democratic
political system that functions as a federal parliamentary democracy
and constitutional monarchy
. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
and a Commonwealth realm
. Australia has a population of about 20 million, concentrated mainly in the coastal cities of Sydney
. A highly developed country
and one of the wealthiest, Australia is the world's 12th-largest economy
and has the world's fifth-highest per capita income
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Alfred Russel Wallace was a British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist. He is best known for independently proposing a theory of natural selection which prompted Charles Darwin to publish on his own theory. Wallace did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin and then in the Malay Archipelago, where he identified the Wallace Line that divides Indonesia into two distinct parts, one with animals more closely related to those of Australia and the other with animals more closely related to those found in Asia. He was considered the 19th century's leading expert on the geographical distribution of animal species and is sometimes called the "father of biogeography". Wallace was one of the leading evolutionary thinkers of the 19th century who made a number of other contributions to the development of evolutionary theory besides being co-discoverer of natural selection. These included the concept of warning colouration in animals, and the Wallace effect, a hypothesis on how natural selection could contribute to speciation by encouraging the development of barriers against hybridization. An account of his observations, The Malay Archipelago, is regarded as probably the best of all journals of scientific exploration published during the 19th century.
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