Algerian People's National Army

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Armée Nationale Populaire
الجيش الوطني الشعبي
ANP.png
ANP emblem
Active1962
(Formerly the Armée de Libération Nationale)
Country Algeria
BranchArmy
Websitehttp://www.mdn.dz/
Commanders
Chief of Staff of the People's National ArmyAhmed Gaid Salah

The Armée Nationale Populaire (ANP) (in Arabic : الجيش الوطني الشعبي) is the land force of the Military of Algeria. The Armée Nationale Populaire's equipment is provided by Russia, and various other countries.

The Army includes two armoured and three mechanised divisions (IISS Military Balance 2007), one of which is the 8th Armoured Division based at Ras El Ma, 90 kilometres from Sidi Bel Abbes,[1] in the 2nd Military Region. The division was formed from the 8th Armoured Brigade after 1988 (the 8th Armoured Brigade seems to have been formed in 1976). Another is the 40th Mechanised Infantry Division apparently based in the 3rd Military Region. The mission of the 40th Division is usually the protection of the Algerian-Moroccan frontier.[2] The IISS Military Balance 2013 named one of the other mechanised divisions as the 12th. There may be a single independent armoured brigade, the 41st Armoured Brigade in the In Amenas area.

There is also French reporting of an airborne division formed in the early 1990s.[3] A division with five airborne regiments, seemingly similar to the French reporting, was listed in the IISS Military Balance for 2001-02 and 2006. However it was not listed in the 2007 edition of the Military Balance.

Creation and development[edit]

After the end of the liberation war in June 1962, the first objective was to establish a logistics organization to meet the needs of the army - a structure, feed, clothe, care for and train. The directions of Stewardship, Hardware, Engineering and Health, Transport and Supply were the first to emerge. These directions, which came quickly join those of the staff of the Air Force, Navy and Education, at the Ministry, would form the backbone of the National People's Army. The bases of the general structure of the army were consolidated with the creation of the main directions, the establishment of an effective organization, the opening of schools and instruction centers and sending abroad trainees for different weapons and services.

Efforts to develop and modernize the ANP continued throughout the 1970s and 80s, at the organizational level, the formation of battalions and brigades. During the eighties, the army experienced a considerable growth. Thus, in 1986, a restructuring began, based primarily on the implementation of large units combining firepower and gradual movement, i.e. combat divisions, equipped with sophisticated weapons systems and other equipment necessary for the use and maintenance of these systems. This modernization was not just about the hardware, but included all organizational areas and combat. Thus was created the General Inspection of the PNA.

The Algerian military provided young men, from disadvantaged backgrounds, the opportunity to rank up in society. This opportunity played a strong role in south east Algeria, the Aures and Nemencha mountains, where the Shawiyya Berbers lived.[4]

Military regions[edit]

Algerian military regions

Algeria is divided into seven numbered military regions, each with headquarters located in a principal city or town. This system of territorial organization, adopted shortly after independence, grew out of the wartime wilaya structure and the postwar necessity of subduing antigovernment insurgencies that were based in the various regions. Regional commanders control and administer bases, logistics, and housing, as well as conscript training. Commanders of army divisions and brigades, air force installations, and naval forces report directly to the Ministry of National Defense and service chiefs of staff on operational matters.[5]

During the 1980s, most of the army's combat units were concentrated in the 2nd Military Region (Oran) and to a lesser extent in the 3rd Military Region (Béchar). Chadli Bendjedid became head of the 2nd Military Region in 1964. Adjacent to Morocco, the 3rd Military Region straddles the main access routes from that country. It is also near the troubled Western Sahara, embracing territory previously claimed by Morocco. Much of the internal disorder and violence associated with economic distress and the Islamist movement has occurred in the 1st Military Region (Blida), which includes the capital of Algiers, and the 5th Military Region (Constantine). Army units have been strengthened in and near the cities where attacks against the government and security forces have occurred. Although regional commanders were originally all colonels, the commanders of the 1st Military Region (Mohamed Djenouhat) and the 5th Military Region (Abdelhamid Djouadi) were both promoted to major general in 1992. The two southeastern jurisdictions — the 4th Military Region (Ouargla) and 6th Military Region (Tamanrasset) — were sparsely populated tracts of desert where a limited number of combat troops carried out patrols and manned small outposts. The Ouargla region assumed a measure of strategic importance after relations with Libya soured, but the military's main activities there and in the 6th Military Region are the construction and planting projects undertaken by conscript forces. The 6th Military Region was created in 1975 to cover the south.[6]

On February 24, 2000, there was a large change of guards in the military regions, where four commanders of the six were changed. From this reshuffling, the previous French army officers took power of the Algerian army and the shift in power correlated with the change of a national service and alteration of the ANP to a professional army.

President Bouteflika, as Minister of Defence, nominated new commanders for military regions in August 2004. (BICC) In 2010 there were a further series of changes. Président Bouteflika changed the commanders of three military regions, according to the presidential décrees published Wednesday 25 August in the Algerian Journal officiel. Général Mohand-Ameziane Si-Mohand was nominated to head the 3rd Military Region, le général Hassen Alaimia prend les commandes de la 4th Military Region et la 5e est désormais dirigée par le général Saïd Ziad.[7] These nominations took effect from 1 August, selon les mêmes décrets. President Bouteflika also named new deputy commanders in these military regions.

In 2013 a 7th Military Region was formed at Illizi in the south.[8]

Equipment[edit]

Tanks[edit]

Model Origin Type Quantity Notes
T-55/AMV  Soviet Union 1st Generation MBT 600
T62 2nd Generation MBT 800
T-72M1M/AG 500
T-90S/SA/MS  Russia 3rd Generation MBT 575 The first batch of 185 was signed during 2009 and the second deal: 187 tanks,[9] + 200 received in 2016[10]

APCs/AFVs[11][edit]

[27] ||
Model Origin Type Quantity Notes
BMPT Terminator 2  Russia Tank support combat vehicle 300[12][13] In April 2016, Russia and Algeria concluded an agreement for the delivery of Russian "Terminators"[14]
BTR-60 PB/P  Soviet Union Armoured personnel carrier 250[15]
BTR-80 150[15]
BMP-1 685 Algeria signed a contract with Russia for modernization of 400 BMP-1s in 2006
BMP-2 760 Being upgraded to BMP-2 Berezhok configuration with 9M113 Kornet
BMP-3 Infantry fighting vehicle 100
BRDM-2 Armoured reconnaissance vehicle 90[15] 64 Modernized with to BDRM-2M standard armed with 9M113 Kornet missiles
AML 60  France 44[15]
Panhard M3 Armoured personnel carrier 55[15]
TPz Fuchs  Germany 980 in service[16] In early 2011, 54 Fuchs 2 worth $248 million were ordered from Rheinmetall. In 2014, 980 Fuchs 2 were ordered as part of a €2.7 billion defence deal with Rheinmetall.[17]
Nimr  United Arab Emirates and  Algeria High mobility multipurpose vehicle 3,000 contract for the production of such armored vehicles with an annual turnout of 200 units for 15 years[18]
OT-64 SKOT  Czechoslovakia and  Poland armoured personnel carrier 150[15] [19]
ZSU-23-4  Soviet Union 310 210 were modernized to SHILKA-M with Igla messile system[20]
Otokar Cobra  Turkey Infantry mobility vehicle 200[21][22]
Tigr-M  Russia 28[23] anti-Tank division equipped with Kornet-EM missile system[24]
Humvee  USA HMMWV 100[25][26]

Artillery[edit]

Model Origin Type Quantity Notes
PLZ-45  China Self-propelled artillery 50[28]
2S3 Akatsiya  Soviet Union 75
2S1 Gvozdika 145
Nora B-52  Serbia 50[29]
ML-20 Howitzer 20
M-30 60
M-46 10
D-30 160 Fitted on 6x6 Mercedes-Benz Zetros vehicle[30]
D-44 40
D-74 35
WAC-21  China 18[31]
160mm Mortar M1943 Mortar 60
120-PM-43 mortar 120
W86 120mm mortar  China 60[32]

MRLs[edit]

Model Origin Type Quantity Notes
BM-14-16  Soviet Union Multiple rocket launcher 48[15]
BM-21 Grad 48
BM-24 30[15]
BM-30 Smerch 50[15]
TOS-1A  Russia 52[33][34][35] TOS-1A Slontsepek is a multiple 220 mm rocket launcher mounted on a T90 chassis. It has the ability to fire bursts of 24 thermobaric rockets with a range of 10 Km.
SR-5  China 70[36][37][38]
Iskander-E  Russia Short-range ballistic missile system 48[39][40][41][42][43] 4 regiments received from 2014 to 2017. The Iskander-E has a range of 280 Km, for a warhead of 480 Kg. A missile regiment consists of about fifty vehicles and 48 missiles: 12 launchers, 12 missile carriers and loaders, 11 vehicles of command and personnel, and other vehicles.[40]

Air Defense Systems[edit]

Model Origin Type Quantity Notes
1RL257 Krasukha-4  Russia electronic warfare system unknown Received in 2013[45]
Polyana-D4 Air defense battle management system unknown Received in 2014[46]
Rezonans NE3 Over-the-horizon radar unknown Received in 2017[47]
S-400 missile system Surface-to-air missile 2 regiments[48][49] 2 regiments received in 2015[50][51][52]. One S400 regiment consists of 12 launchers of 4 missiles.
S-300PMU-2 8 regiments 8 regiments of S-300PMU-2 were ordered in 2006,[53][54]. One S300 regiment consists of 12 launchers of 4 missiles.
Pantsir-S1 108 Systems [55] received in 2013[56][57][58]
Tor-M2 unknown Deliveries in 2018[59]
Buk-M2 48 batteries[60]
9K35 Strela-10  Soviet Union 32 launchers
9K31 Strela-1 20 launchers[15]
9K33 Osa 48 Systems[15]
2K12 Kub 40 batteries
S-125 Neva/Pechora 5 batteries
S-75 Dvina 6 batteries
ZSU-23-4 Self-propelled anti-aircraft gun 225
ZSU-57-2 20
ZU-23-2 50
S-60 Anti-aircraft gun 70
61-K 145
HQ-9  China Surface-to-air missile 9 systems [61] [62][63]
Skyshield  Germany Short Range Air Defense unknown Received in 2017[64][65]

Small Arms[edit]

Model Origin Type Notes
CZ 52[66]  Czechoslovakia Semi-automatic pistol Limited use.
TT-33[66]  Soviet Union Limited use by now.
Makarov PM[66] Standard issue pistol, to be replaced by Caracal pistol.
Caracal[66]  United Arab Emirates New standard issue pistol.
Beretta 92[66]  Italy
Glock 17[66]  Austria Used by Special Forces
MAC Mle 1950[66]  France In reserve status.
PPS-43[66]  Soviet Union Submachine gun
Beretta M12[66]  Italy
Carl Gustav m/45[66]  Sweden
Heckler & Koch MP5[66]  West Germany A3, A5 and K versions in use, used by Special Forces.
MAT-49[66]  France Limited use by now.
M16A4[66]  United States of America Assault Rifle 150+ acquired, used by Special Forces.
Steyr AUG[66]  Austria used by Special Forces.
AK-47[66]  Soviet Union Standard issue rifle.
AKS-47
Type 56 assault rifle[66]  China Standard issue rifle/
AK-103[66]  Russia Used by Para-Commandos.
SKS[66]  Soviet Union Semi-automatic rifle
Type 81 assault rifle[66]  China Assault Rifle Limited use, used by Marines.
Beretta BM 59[67]  Italy Battle Rifle Limited Usage.
AKM  Soviet Union Assault Rifle
AKMS
M24 Sniper Weapon System[67]  United States of America Sniper rifle Used by Special forces.
Zastava M93 Black Arrow[68]  Serbia
SVD[67]  Soviet Union Standard issue Marksman rifle.
AA-52[67]  France Machine Gun Limited use.
RPD[67]  Soviet Union Moderate usage by now.
RPK[67] Standard issue LMG.
RP-46[67] In reserve.
PKM[67] Standard GPMG of the army.
Browning M1919[67]  United States of America In reserve.
Browning M2[67] Heavy Machine Gun Limited usage.
DShK[67]  Soviet Union Moderate usage.
NSV[67]
KPV[67]
AGS-17[67] Automatic Grenade Launcher
Denel Y3 AGL[67]
GP-25[67] Grenade launcher
RPG-7[67] Common usage.
LRAC F1[67]  France
RPG-16[67]  Russia Limited usage
RPG-29[69]

Future Acquisitions[edit]

An agreement with Rheinmetall for 980 Fuchs armoured personnel carriers over 10 years was signed in 2014,[17] on top of 54 that were already ordered[70]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ http://www.algeria-watch.org/pdf/pdf_en/forces_repression.pdf. http://www.algeria-watch.org/fr/mrv/mrvmili/tigha_patriotes.htm
  3. ^ Centre Francais de recherche sur la reseignement, Bulletin de documentation 5 Archived 2015-01-11 at the Wayback Machine., accessed January 2014.
  4. ^ Roberts, Hugh (2003). The Battlefield Algeria, 1988-2002: Studies in a Broken Polity. London: Verso. pp. 273–274.
  5. ^ Library of Congress Country Study, 1993, 258-260
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