National Renewal Alliance

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National Renewal Alliance
Aliança Renovadora Nacional
President Ernesto Geisel (last)
Founded April 4, 1966 (1966-04-04)
Dissolved December 20, 1979 (1979-12-20)
Merger of National Democratic Union, Social Democratic Party (partly)
Party of Popular Representation
Succeeded by Democratic Social Party
Headquarters Brasília, D.F., Brazil
Ideology National conservatism
Militarism
Authoritarianism
Protectionism
Anti-communism
Social conservatism
National security doctrine
Political position Right-wing to far-right
International affiliation None
Colours      Dark blue
Party flag
Bandera Arena.png

The National Renewal Alliance (Portuguese: Aliança Renovadora Nacional, ARENA) was a conservative political party that existed in Brazil between 1966 and 1979. It was the official party of the military that ruled Brazil from 1964 to 1985.

Up to 1965, there were three main parties in Brazil: the left-wing populist Brazilian Labour Party (PTB), the centrist Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the conservative National Democratic Union (UDN). In 1964, the government of President João Goulart was overthrown by a military coup d'etat, but in contrast to other Latin American dictatorships, the Brazilian military-controlled government did not abolish Congress. Instead, in 1965, the government banned all existing political parties and created a two-party system. ARENA, the pro-government party, was formed by politicians from the bulk of the UDN, the right wing of the PSD, and the bulk of the integralist Party of Popular Representation. The left wing of the PSD and most of the PTB formed the Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB), the opposition.

ARENA had no real ideology other than support for the military, who used it mostly to rubber-stamp its agenda. In the elections of 1966 and 1970, ARENA won a vast majority of seats. Most agree that, at first, the MDB did not have any chance to pass or block any legislation. It also rubber-stamped the military leadership's choice of president. Under the military's constitution, the president was nominally elected by an absolute majority of both chambers meeting in joint session. In practice, ARENA's majority was so massive that its candidate could not possibly be defeated. During most of the early part of the military regime, Brazil was, for all intents and purposes, a one-party state.

However, ARENA was not completely subservient. For example, in the late 1968 President Artur da Costa e Silva demanded that Congress prosecute a deputy for suggesting that women should refuse to dance with military cadets. Congress turned the demand down, prompting Costa e Silva to issue the heavy-handed Fifth Institutional Act, which allowed him to close Congress and rule by decree. Almost as soon as he signed AI-5 into law, Costa e Silva used its provisions to close Congress for almost two years, thus placing Brazil under a tight dictatorship.

In the legislative elections of 1974, MDB took many more seats than expected. It actually won a majority in the Senate, and came up just short of a majority in the Chamber of Deputies. The government reacted by passing legislation restricting the power of the opposition, and even succeeded in annulling the mandates of some Congressmen of the MDB.

In 1979, in a manoeuvre to divide the opposition, the government ended the bipartisan party system, and the ARENA was dissolved when the new political parties law became effective on 20 December 1979.[1] In January 1980 members of the defunct ARENA founded the Democratic Social Party (PDS) as a continuation of ARENA.

Electoral history[edit]

Presidential elections[edit]

Election date Party candidate Number of Electoral vote Percentage of votes
1966 Artur da Costa e Silva 294 100%
1969 Emílio Garrastazu Médici 293 100%
1974 Ernesto Geisel 400 84%
1978 João Figueiredo 355 61.10%

Congressional elections[edit]

Election date Number of votes received Percentage of votes Number of seats
1966 8,731,638 64.0%
277 / 409
1970 10,867,814 69.5%
223 / 310
1974 11,866,599 52.2 %
203 / 364
1978 15,053,387 50.4%
231 / 422

Senate[edit]

Election date Number of votes received Percentage of votes Number of seats
1966 7,719,382 56.6%
19 / 23
1970 20,524,470 60.4%
40 / 46
1974 10,067,796 41.0%
6 / 22
1978 13,116,194 42.9%
15 / 23

References[edit]