|Native to||Uganda, DR Congo|
|2,400,000 (2013 DRC Census)|
Classification and dialects
The Aringa language, also known as Low Lugbara, is closely related, and sometimes considered a dialect of Lugbara. Some scholars classify the Lugbara language itself as a dialect of the Ma'di language, though this is not generally accepted. An SIL survey report concluded that the Okollo, Ogoko, and Rigbo dialects, called "Southern Ma'di", should be classified as dialects of Lugbara.
Lugbara was first written by Christian missionaries in 1918, based on the Ayivu dialect. In 2000, a conference was held in the city of Arua in northwestern Uganda regarding the creation of a standardised international orthography for Lugbara.
In 1992, the Government of Uganda designated it as one of five "languages of wider communication" to be used as the medium of instruction in primary education; however, unlike the other four such languages, it was never actually used in schools. More recently it was included in the curriculum for some secondary schools in the West Nile region, including St. Joseph's College Ombaci and Muni Girls Secondary School, both in Arua District.
Lugbara phrases are spoken in several dialects (clan-wise) but the Muni (Ayivu) version, from which many of the explanations below are based, is the one approved for teaching in schools. The language has diphthong clusters and other noteworthy phonetics including the following:
aa as in bat, for example embataa
c as in church, for example Candiru (which is also spelt Chandiru)
dj as in jilt, for example odji, the ‘d’ is silent
ee as in emblem, for example Andree
gb as in bend, for example gbe, the ‘g’ is silent. Gb in Lugbara does not have an equivalent in English.What stands out in these Sudanic languages is the special manner in which 'kp, gb, 'd, 'b, 'y, 'w are pronounced.
i as in inn, for example di-i
oa as in oar, for example Adroa
oo as in old, for example ocoo, less often oo as in food, for example ‘doo
uu as in chew, for example cuu
z as in jean after n, for example onzi. Otherwise, most times remains z as in zebra, for example Ozu and when the first letter of a word.
The Lugbara alphabet has 28 letters minus ‘q’ and ‘x’ (Alamakanda in Aringa language), which means 24 like in English and four unique ones namely: ‘b like in ‘bua, ‘d like in ‘dia, ‘w like in ‘wara and ‘y like in ‘yetaa. Letters are pronounced as follows: Ah, Ba, Cha, Da, Eh, Fa, Ga, Ha, Ie, Ja, Ka, La, Ma, Na, Oh, Pa, Ra, Sa, Ta, Uuw, Va, Wa, Ya, and Za.
Some words are borrowed from other languages, for example Safari (journey) from Swahili, Buku (book) from English, Kandi (ball) from Lingala, etc. Also in the vocabulary, there are several words that have varied meanings when pronounced differently, for instance Oli can mean air, wind (also Oliriko), whistle, cut or roll.
|11.||Mudri drini alu|
|12.||Mudri drini iri|
|13.||Mudri drini na|
|21.||Kali iri drini alu|
|22.||Kali iri drini iri|
|23.||Kali iri drini na|
Greetings and other phrases
|Mi ifu ngoni?||How did you wake up?/ Good morning!|
|Ngoni?||How are you?|
|[Ma] Muke!||[I’m] Fine!|
|Ma azoru!||I’m sick!|
|Mi aa ngoni?||Good afternoon!|
|Ayiko ni ma fu!||Happiness is killing me!/ I’m happy!|
|Abiri ni ma fu(fu)!||Hunger is killing me!/ I’m hungry!|
|Sawa si?||What time is it?|
|Sawa alu o’bitisi.||7:00 a.M. [To tell time, you mention the number on the opposite side of the clock. Sawa iri is 8 O’clock, Sawa na is 9 O’clock, etc.]|
|Sawa modri drini alu ondresi||5:00 p.m.|
|Mi efi!||Come in!|
|Ife mani ‘yi!||Give me water!|
|Iko ma aza!||Help me!|
|Mi a'bua ozi si?||How much do you sell bananas?|
|Ajeni si?||How much [is the price]?|
|Ale Obangulu!||I want mashed whiteants!|
|Ma mu Gili Gili-a ngoni?||How do I get to Gili Gili?|
|Arojo ngoa?||Where is the drugshop?|
|Mi ru adi-i?||What is your name?|
|Ma ru Joel-i!||I’m called Joel!|
|Ale mi ra!||I love you!|
|Ma enga Ombaci-a.||I’m from Ombaci.|
|Ma mu kanisa-a.||I’m going to church.|
|Mi ma agi!||You are my friend!|
|Ma mu Ariwara-a ngoni?||How do I get to Ariwara?|
|Mosikiti ngwa?||Where is the mosque?|
|Mi ma ji Ragem-a ra?||Can you take me to Ragem?|
|Iji ma Ediofe-a!||Take me to Ediofe!|
|Ba mucele ozi ngwa?||Where is rice sold?|
|Aje/ andru/ drusi/ drozi||Yesterday, today, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow|
|Ila muke!||Sleep well!|
|Ale ra!||I want! [The word 'ra' after a verb denotes positivity.]|
|Ale ku!||I don't want! [The word 'ku' after a verb denotes negativity.]|
Grandmother (dede, e’di)
Father (ati, ata)
Mother (andri, andre, ayia)
Son (agupiamva, mvi)
Daughter (zamva, zi)
Uncles (atapuruka, [maternal - adroyi, paternal - adropi])
Cousin brother (atapuruka anzi)
Cousin sister (atapuruka ezopi)
Nephews (adro anzi)
Nieces (adro ezoanzi, ezaapi)
Days of the week
1 week (Sabatu alu, sabiti alu)
A day is called O’du in Lugbara.
Sunday (Sabatu, sabiti, yinga, yumula)
Monday (O’du alu)
Tuesday (O’du iri)
Wednesday (O’du na)
Thursday (O’du su)
Friday (O’du towi)
Saturday (O’du azia)
The simplest way to refer to months (Mba in Lugbara) is to use numbers, for example January is Mba Alu, February is Mba Iri, May is Mba Towi and so on. But below is the other Latinized (and seasonal) way of mentioning them.
Januari (Oco ‘dupa sere)
Aprili (Ayi – Wet season)
Desemba (Anyu fi kuma)
Imve silili, imve whilili (very pure white)
Inibiricici, inicici (very dark)
Emvesi-enisi (black and white)
Foro [foro] (gray)
|Osu||(Beans, Kaiko in Terego dialect)|
|Buruso, burusu||(Guinea peas)|
|Ti eza||(Cow Meat)|
To study Lugbara, you might need a language teacher or guide but knowing the pronunciation basics and vocabulary preferably from a dictionary can give you a very good start. Practice by talking to natives physically or online and listening to Lugbara music.
- Lugbara at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Southern Ma'di at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Lugbara". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Southern Ma'di". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Gordon, Raymond (2005). "Lugbara language". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
- Boone, Douglas; Watson, Richard (1999). "Moru–Ma'di Survey Report" (PDF). SIL Electronic Survey Reports SILESR 1999-001.
- Blackings, Mairi; Nigel Fabb (2003). A Grammar of Ma'di. Mouton de Gruyter. p. 1. ISBN 3-11-017940-7.
- Da Fonseca, N. "Writing unwritten languages". UNESCO.[permanent dead link]
- Ngaka, Willy; O'du'bua, Edward; Ongua, Paul Iga (2009). Lugbara - English Dictionary. Fountain Publishers.
- Ongua Iga, Paul (1999). A Simplified Lugbara-English Dictionary. Fountain Publishers. ISBN 9970-02-105-2.
|Lugbara language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|