Hinduism and LGBT topics
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Hindu views of homosexuality and, in general, LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) issues, are diverse and different Hindu groups have distinct views. Although some Hindu dharmic texts contain injunctions against homosexuality, a number of Hindu mythic stories have portrayed homosexual experience as natural and joyful, and there are several Hindu temples which have carvings that depict both men and women engaging in homosexual acts. Same-sex relations and gender variance have been represented within Hinduism from Vedic times through to the present day, in rituals, law books, religious or so-called mythical narratives, commentaries, paintings, and sculpture. In 2009, the Hindu Council of the United Kingdom issued a statement that "Hinduism does not condemn homosexuality," subsequent to the decision of the Delhi High Court to legalise homosexuality in India. The Supreme Court of India subsequently overturned the capital high court's decision. A high-ranking member of the influential right-wing Hindu group Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) has publicly stated that he does not believe homosexuality should be illegal, and that the RSS had no official stance on this issue since it was a matter of personal preference. After the Supreme Court of India struck down parts of Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, the RSS stated that while relationships between people of the same gender are unnatural, it is not a criminal act.
- 1 Difference between Western and Hindu views of male sexuality
- 2 Contemporary Hindu society
- 3 The third gender
- 4 Hindu religious narratives
- 5 Hindu texts
- 6 Third-gender Hindu sects
- 7 Religious art
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Difference between Western and Hindu views of male sexuality
Unlike the West, the Hindu society does not have the concept of 'sexual orientation' that classifies males on the basis of who they desire. However, there is a strong, ancient concept of third gender, which is for individuals who have strong elements of both male and female in them. According to Sanskrit texts such as the Narada-Smriti, Sushruta Samhita, etc., this third sex or gender includes people who have conventionally been called homosexuals, bisexuals, transgender people and intersex people (LGBTI). Third genders are described in ancient Vedic texts as males who have a female nature—referring to homosexual men or feminine-gendered males. The gender/sexual role of third genders has for long been predominantly associated with receiving penetration from men, just like the gender/ sexual role of manhood has been to penetrate men, women or third genders. However, the Kama Sutra clearly describes third-gender men assuming both masculine and feminine identities as well as both receptive and dominant sexual roles.
Although Hindu society does not formally acknowledge sexuality between men, it formally acknowledges and gives space to sexuality between men and third genders as a variation of male-female sex (i.e., a part of heterosexuality, rather than homosexuality, if analysed in Western terms). In fact, Hijras, Alis, Kotis, etc.— the various forms of the third gender that exist in India today— are all characterized by the gender role of having receptive anal and oral sex with men. Sexuality between men (as distinct from third genders) has nevertheless thrived, mostly unspoken, informally, within men's spaces, without being seen as 'different' in the way it is seen in the West. As in some other non-Western cultures, it is considered more or less a universal aspect of manhood, even if not socially desirable. It is the effeminate male sexuality for men (or for women) which is seen as 'different,' and differently categorised. Men often refer to their sexual play with each other as 'musti.'
The Hindu concept of homosexuality seeks to break this distinction between third gender and men, and to isolate sexuality between men along with the third genders, with all its negative consequences. As such, men in India have long resisted the concept of 'gay,' and have sex with men without identifying as a 'homosexual.' Gay activists have sought to introduce a locally acceptable term for 'homosexual' for two decades, without success. Finally, the term MSM was taken, because it was technically difficult for men to avoid, if they had sex with men. However, it too was rejected by Indian men, as it was seen as just another term for 'gay.'
A significant fallout of this has been that sexual desire between men, which was near universal earlier, is now become more and more isolated from the mainstream, as men are distancing themselves from it because of the stigma of effeminacy or third gender attached to the notion of 'gay.'
Contemporary Hindu society
— Gopi Shankar Madurai in National Queer Conference 2013
Sexuality is rarely discussed openly in contemporary Hindu society, especially in modern India where homosexuality was illegal until a brief period beginning in 2009, due to colonial British laws. On July 2, 2009 The Delhi High Court in a historic judgement decriminalised homosexuality in India; where the court noted that the existing laws violated fundamental rights to personal liberty (Article 21 of the Indian Constitution) and equality (Article 14) and prohibition of discrimination (Article 15). However, the Supreme Court of India re-affirmed the penal code provision and overturned the Delhi High Court decision, effectively re-instating the legal ban on homosexuality in which penalties included life imprisonment until September 6, 2018 when Supreme Court of India decriminalised homosexuality. Furthermore LGBT people are often subected to torture, executions and fines by non-government affiliated vigilante groups.
Even though Hinduism is never known to exclusively ban homosexuality, certain Hindu nationalist factions are opposed to legalising homosexuality while certain others choose to remain silent. However, in the last twenty years homosexuality has become increasingly visible in the print and audio-visual media, with many out LGBT people, an active LGBT movement, and a large Indian LGBT presence on the Internet. From the 1990s onward, modern gay and lesbian Hindu organizations have surfaced in India's major cities and in 2004, plausible calls were made for the first time to repeal India's laws against homosexuality.
Deepa Mehta's 1996 film Fire, which depicts a romantic relationship between two Hindu women, was informally banned for "religious insensitivity" after Hindu nationalists attacked cinemas where it was being screened on the grounds that it denigrated Indian culture, not on the grounds of homophobia per se, a position shared and confirmed by feminist Madhu Kishwar. In addition, The Bharatiya Janata Party who were in power in India at the time, refused to ban it. Similar protests occurred in 2004 against the lesbian-themed film Girlfriend — even though the portrayal of lesbianism was this time distinctly unsympathetic. Several human-rights groups such as the People's Union for Civil Liberties have asserted that sexual minorities in India face severe discrimination and violence, especially those from rural and lower-caste backgrounds.
In her book, Love's Rite, Ruth Vanita examines the phenomena of same-sex weddings, many by Hindu rites, which have been reported by the Indian press over the last thirty years and with increasing frequency. In the same period, same-sex joint suicides have also been reported. Most of these marriages and suicides are by lower-middle-class female couples from small towns and rural areas across the country; these women have no contact with any LGBT movements. Both cross-sex and same-sex couples, when faced with family opposition, tend to resort to either elopement and marriage or to joint suicide in the hope of reunion in the next life. Vanita examines how Hindu doctrines such as rebirth and the genderlessness of the soul are often interpreted to legitimize socially disapproved relationships, including same-sex ones. In a 2004 survey, most — though not all — swamis said they opposed the concept of a Hindu-sanctified gay marriage. But several Hindu priests have performed same-sex marriages, arguing that love is the result of attachments from previous births and that marriage, as a union of spirit, is transcendental to gender.
Later, Vanita condenses the ideas in her book into an article, "Same-sex Weddings, Hindu Traditions and Modern India". Here, she summarizes specific cases in which women specifically committed joint-suicides, were married and separated, or successfully married. She points out three different "forces that have helped female couples". These are: the law courts, the media, and some Hindu authorities (such as the swamis mentioned earlier in this article) from her book. When female couples can stay together under the social pressures and get to the courts, the courts generally hold up their decisions, holding to the fact that the women are consenting adults. While this does not necessarily stop the harassment, it does lend the couple further legitimacy under the laws. In addition, the more successful same-sex marriages of women are those in which the women are financially independent. If they have social support from their families and community—for the most part—then they may be able to live in peace together. The media may also play an important role in same-sex marriages. In drawing attention to their marriages, women who do not necessarily know about LGBT rights groups may be contacted and supported by those groups after media attention. However, the flip side of this is that the anti-LGBT groups also may reach out against their marriage.
Some Indian and Hindu intellectuals now publicly support LGBT civil rights. Some liberal Hindu reform movements, especially those in the West, also support social acceptance of gays, lesbians, and other gender minorities. Psychoanalyst Sudhir Kakar writes that Hindus are more accepting of "deviance or eccentricity" that are adherents of Western religions, who typically treat sexual variance as "anti-social or psychopathological, requiring 'correction' or 'cure'". Hindus, he argues, believe instead that each individual must fulfill their personal destiny (svadharma) as they travel the path towards moksha (transcendence).
Commenting on the legalisation of homosexuality in India; Anil Bhanot, general secretary of The United Kingdom Hindu Council said: "The point here is that the homosexual nature is part of the natural law of God; it should be accepted for what it is, no more and no less. Hindus are generally conservative but it seems to me that in ancient India, they even celebrated sex as an enjoyable part of procreation, where priests were invited for ceremonies in their home to mark the beginning of the process."
The third gender
Hindu philosophy has the concept of a third sex or third gender (tritiya-prakriti – literally, "third nature"). This category includes a wide range of people with mixed male and female natures such as effeminate males, masculine females, transgender people, transsexual people, the intersexed, androgynes, and so on. Many MTF third-genders are not attracted only or at all to men, but are attracted either exclusively to women or are bisexual. Many FTM transgender people are attracted to men. Such persons are not considered fully male or female in traditional Hinduism, being a combination of both. They are mentioned as third sex by nature (birth) and are not expected to behave like ordinary men and women. They often keep their own societies or town quarters, perform specific occupations (such as masseurs, hairdressers, flower-sellers, domestic servants, etc.) and are generally attributed a semi-divine status. Their participation in religious ceremonies, especially as cross-dressing dancers and devotees of certain temple gods/goddesses, is considered auspicious in traditional Hinduism. Some Hindus believe that third-sex people have special powers allowing them to bless or curse others.
In 2008, the state of Tamil Nadu recognised the "Third Gender"; with its civil supplies department giving in the ration card a provision for a new sex column as 'T', distinct from the usual 'M' and 'F' for males and females respectively. This was the first time that authorities anywhere in India have officially recognised the third gender.
Hindu religious narratives
In the Hindu narrative tradition, stories of gods and mortals changing gender occur. Sometimes they also engage in heterosexual activities as different reincarnated genders. Homosexual and transgender Hindus commonly identify with and worship the various Hindu deities connected with gender diversity such as Ardhanarisvara (the androgynous form of Shiva and his consort Parvati), Aravan (a hero whom the god Krishna married after becoming a woman), Harihara (an incarnation of Shiva and Vishnu combined), Bahuchara Mata (a goddess connected with transsexuality and eunuchism), Gadadhara (an incarnation of Radha in male form), Chandi-Chamunda (twin warrior goddesses), Bhagavati-devi (a Hindu goddess associated with cross-dressing), Gangamma (a goddess connected with cross-dressing and disguises) and the goddess Yellamma. There are also specific festivals connected to the worship of these deities, some of which are famous in India for their cross-dressing devotees. These festivals include the Aravan Festival of Koovagam, the Bahuchara Mata Festivals of Gujarat and the Yellamma Festivals of Karnataka, among others. Deities displaying gender variance include Mohini, the female avatar of the god Vishnu and Vaikuntha Kamalaja, the androgynous form of Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi.
LBGT interpretations are also drawn in the legends of birth of the deities Ayyappa (a god born from the union of Shiva and Mohini), Bhagiratha (an Indian king born of two female parents) and Kartikeya (where the fire-god Agni "swallows" the seed of Shiva after disturbing his coitus with his consort Parvati). Some homosexual Hindus also worship the gods Mitra and Varuna, who are associated with two lunar phases and same-sex relations in ancient Brahmana texts.
Gender variance is also observed in heroes in Hindu scriptures. The Hindu epic Mahabharata narrates that the hero Arjuna takes a vow to live as a member of the third sex for a year as the result of a curse he is compelled to honor. He thus transforms into Brihannala, a member of the third gender, for a year and becomes a dance teacher to a princess. Another important character, Shikhandi, is born female, but raised as a man and even married to a woman. She becomes male due to the grace of a Yaksha. Shikhandi eventually becomes the reason for the death of the warrior Bhishma, who refuses to fight a "woman." Another character, Bhishma appeases Yudhishtira's curiosity about relative enjoyment of partners during sex by relating the story of King Bhangasvana, who has had a hundred sons is turned into a woman while on a hunt. She returns to her kingdom, relates the story, turns the kingdom over to her children and retires to the forest to be the spouse of a hermit, by whom she has a hundred more sons. Ila, a king from Hindu narratives, is also known for his/her gender changes.
Some versions of the Krittivasa Ramayana, the most popular Bengali text on the pastimes of Ramachandra (an incarnation of Vishnu), relate a story of two queens who conceived a child together. When the king of the Sun Dynasty, Maharaja Dilipa, died, the demigods become concerned that he did not have a son to continue his line. Shiva, therefore, appeared before the king's two widowed queens and commanded them, "You two make love together and by my blessings, you will bear a beautiful son." The two wives, with great affection for each other, executed Shiva's order until one of them conceived a child. The sage Astavakra accordingly named the child "Bhagiratha" – he who was born from two vulvas. Bhagiratha later became a king and is credited with bringing the river Ganges down to earth through his austerities.
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Hindus have many sacred texts and different communities give special importance to different texts. Even more so than in other religions, Hindus also foster disparate interpretations of the meaning of various texts. The Vedas, which form the foundation of Hinduism for many, do not refer explicitly to homosexuality, but Rigveda says regarding Samsara that Vikruti Evam Prakriti (perversity/diversity is what nature is all about, or, what seems unnatural is also natural), which some scholars believe recognizes the cyclical constancy of homosexual/transsexual dimensions of human life, like all forms of universal diversities. People of a third gender (tritiya-prakriti), not fully men nor women, are mentioned here and there throughout Hindu texts such as the Puranas but are not specifically defined. In general, they are portrayed as effeminate men, often cowardly, and with no desire for women. Modern readers often draw parallels between these and modern stereotypes of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender sexual identities. However, Hindu texts (Mostly Dharmasastras) such as the Manusmirti, Vide Atri Smřti, Vide Baudhāyana Dharmasūtra, and the Vide Apastambha Dharmasūtra do treat Homosexuality as a sin, in some cases legally punishable. in addition, each Hindu denomination had developed distinct rules regarding sexuality, as Hinduism is not unified and is decentralized in essence.
Historians Ruth Vanita and Saleem Kidwai, in their pioneering book, Same-Sex Love in India: Readings from Literature and History, for the first time compiled extracts from Indian texts, from ancient to modern times, including many Hindu texts, translated from 15 Indian languages. In their accompanying analytical essays, they also demonstrated that Hindu texts have discussed and debated same-sex desire from the earliest times, in tones ranging from critical to non-judgmental to playful and celebratory.
Mythologist Devdutt Pattanaik summarizes the place of homosexuality in Hindu literature as follows: "though not part of the mainstream, its existence was acknowledged but not approved." Other Indologists assert that homosexuality was not approved for brahmanas or the twice-born but accepted among other castes.
In his book, Tritiya-Prakriti: People of the Third Sex, Vaishnava monk Amara Das Wilhelm demonstrates how ancient expressions of Hinduism accommodated homosexual and transgender persons much more positively than we see in India today: "Early Vedic teachings stressed responsible family life and asceticism but also tolerated different types of sexualities within general society."[self-published source]
The Mahanirvana Tantra exclude the third-gendered from the right of inheritance, although establishing they have the right to be financially supported by their family.
The Kama Sutra is an ancient text dealing with kama or desire (of all kinds), which in Hindu thought is one of the four normative and spiritual goals of life. The Kama Sutra is the earliest extant and most important work in the Kama Shastra tradition of Sanskrit literature. It was compiled by the philosopher Vatsyayana around the 4th century, from earlier texts, and describes homosexual practices in several places, as well as a range of sex/gender 'types'. The author acknowledges that these relations also involve love and a bond of trust.
The author describes techniques by which masculine and feminine types of the third sex (tritiya-prakriti), as well as women, perform fellatio. The Second Part, Ninth Chapter of Kama Sutra specifically describes two kinds of men that we would recognize today as masculine- and feminine-type homosexuals but which are mentioned in older, Victorian British translations as simply "eunuchs." The chapter describes their appearances – feminine types dressed up as women whereas masculine types maintained muscular physiques and grew small beards, mustaches, etc. – and their various professions as masseurs, barbers and prostitutes are all described. Such homosexual men were also known to marry, according to the Kama Sutra: "There are also third-sex citizens, sometimes greatly attached to one another and with complete faith in one another, who get married together." (KS 2.9.36). In the "Jayamangala" of Yashodhara, an important twelfth-century commentary on the Kama Sutra, it is also stated: "Citizens with this kind of homosexual inclination, who renounce women and can do without them willingly because they love one another, get married together, bound by a deep and trusting friendship."
After describing fellatio as performed between men of the third sex, the Sutra then mentions the practice as an act between men and women, wherein the homosexuals' acts are scorned, especially for Brahmanas. (KS 2.9.37)
The Kama Sutra also refers to svairini, who are "independent women who frequent their own kind or others" (2.8.26) — or, in another passage: "the liberated woman, or svairini, is one who refuses a husband and has relations in her own home or in other houses" (6.6.50). In a famous commentary on the Kama Sutra from the 12th century, Jayamangala, explains: "A woman known for her independence, with no sexual bars, and acting as she wishes, is called svairini. She makes love with her own kind. She strokes her partner at the point of union, which she kisses." (Jayamangala on Kama Sutra 2.8.13). The various practices of lesbians are described in detail within the Second Part, Eighth Chapter of the Kama Sutra.
There are other ancient Hindu/Sanskrit texts that refer to homosexuality. The Sushruta Samhita, for example, a highly respected Hindu medical text dating back to at least 600 B.C., mentions two different types of homosexual men (kumbhika – men who take the passive role in anal sex; and asekya – men who devour the semen of other men) as well as transgender people (sandha – men with the qualities, behavior and speech of women). It also states that men who behave like women, or women who behave like men, are determined as such at the time of their conception in the womb. (SS 3.2.42–43)[self-published source] The Sushruta Samhita also mentions the possibility of two women uniting and becoming pregnant as a result of the mingling of their sexual fluids. It states that the child born of such a union will be "boneless." Such a birth is indeed described in the Krittivasa Ramayana of Bengal (see below).
Other texts list the various types of men who are impotent with women (known in Sanskrit as sandha, kliba, napumsaka, and panda). The Sabda-kalpa-druma Sanskrit-Sanskrit dictionary, for instance, lists twenty types, as does the Kamatantra and Smriti-Ratnavali of Vacaspati (14th century). The Narada Smriti similarly lists fourteen different types. Included among the lists are transgender people (sandha), intersex people (nisarga), and three different types of homosexual men (mukhebhaga, kumbhika and asekya). Such texts demonstrate that third-sex terms like sandha and napumsaka actually refer to many different types of "men who are impotent with women," and that simplistic definition such as "eunuch" or "neuter" may not always be accurate and in some cases totally incorrect. In his article Homosexuality and Hinduism, Arvind Sharma expresses his doubt over the common English translation of words like kliba into "eunuch" as follows: "The limited practice of castration in India raises another point significant for the rest of the discussion, namely, whether rendering a word such as "kliba" as "eunuch" regularly is correct..."
The Arthashastra of Kautilya represents the principle text of secular law and illustrates the attitude of the judiciary towards sexual matters. Heterosexual vaginal sex is proposed as the norm by this text and legal issues arising from deviation therefrom are punishable by fines and in extreme cases by capital punishment. Homosexual acts are cited as a small offence punishable by a fine. It punishes non-vaginal sex with a small fine (4; 23; 326, however, women are fined less than men.
The digest or dharmanibandha work "Dandaviveka'" written by Vardhamana Upadhyaya in 15th century in Mithila pronounced that semen shouldn't ejaculate outside the vagina. Ayoni sex here is divided into two categories, one which includes intercourse with humans of both genders.
The Narada Purana in 1.15.936 states that those who have non-vaginal intercourse will go to Retobhojana where they have to live on semen. Ruth Vanita states that the punishment in afterlife suggested by it is comical and befitting the act. The Skanda Purana states that those who indulge in such acts will acquire impotency.
The Manusmriti's punishment are light. XI. 174 prescribes eating the five products of the cow or Panchagavya and foregoing food for a night for several sexual acts committed by a man including those with other men. XI. 175 states that those men who engage in intercourse with a man should take a bath while being clothed. According to XI.68, a man who engages in such acts is traditionally considered to lose his caste, though Ruth Vanita suggests the prescriptions by Manusmriti act as a substitute.
Verses 8.369-370 of Manusmriti which prescribe punishment for a female having intercourse with a maiden are wrongly thought to be against same-sex activity between females by some modern authors like Wendy Doniger. However, verse 8.367 contains a similar punishment for all those who do it regardless of gender. The emphasis Vanita states here is on a maiden's sexual purity.
Sangam literature use the word ‘Pedi’ to refer to transwomen. Likewise, the famous Sangam period characters of King Koperunchozhan and Pisuranthaiyar are another example for same-sex love and They are said to have not seen each other at all and yet shared love and regard for each other, so much, that they die at the same time at different places. “For instance, the friendship between King Pari and poet Kabilar is shown as something more than just friendship. There are lyrical undertones suggestive of the intimate relationship they had. But since there is no explicit representation, one can only postulate a possibility.
Third-gender Hindu sects
Below are listed some of the most common third-gender sects found in Hinduism. There are an estimated half million crossdressing "eunuchs" in modern-day India, associated with various sects, temples and Hindu deities.[self-published source] Despite being called "eunuchs", the majority of these persons (91%) do not practice castration but are more accurately associated with transgender.
The hijras are a third-gender group in the Indian subcontinent. Some of them undergo castration, which is connected to Bahuchara Mata who is identified with the earth goddess. According to legends, she cut off her breasts in order to avoid rape by a group of bandits. The operation is termed by them nirvan. They compare it with tapas which consists of avoiding sex. Anlso used to justify emasculation is a creation myth of Shiva who emasculated himself. The aravanis also undergo castration. Hijras also use Arjuna becoming an eunuch during exile as a result of a curse as a justification for castration. Despite this, all the seven major hijra clans are claimed to have been established by Muslims.
There are an estimated 50,000 hijra in northern India. After interviewing and studying the hijra for many years, Serena Nanda writes in her book, Neither Man Nor Woman: The hijras of India, as follows: "There is a widespread belief in India that hijras are born hermaphrodites [intersex] and are taken away by the hijra community at birth or in childhood, but I found no evidence to support this belief among the hijras I met, all of whom joined the community voluntarily, often in their teens." Nanda also states: "There is absolutely no question that at least some hijras – perhaps even the majority – are homosexual prostitutes. Sinha's (1967) study of hijras in Lucknow, in North India, acknowledges the hijra role as performers, but views the major motivation for recruitment to the hijra community as the satisfaction of the individual's homosexual urges..." The hijras especially worship Bahuchara, the Hindu goddess presiding over transsexuality.
The Aravani or Ali
The most numerous third-gender sect (estimated at 150,000) is the aravani or ali of Tamil Nadu in southern India. The aravanis are typically transgender and their main festival, the popular Koovagam or Aravan Festival celebrated in late April/early May, is attended by thousands, including many transgender people and homosexuals. The aravani worship the Hindu god, Aravan, and do not practice any system of castration.
A lesser-known third-gender sect in India is the jogappa of South India (Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh), a group similarly associated with prostitution. The jogappa are connected with the goddess Yellamma (Renuka), and include both transgender people and homosexuals. Both serve as dancers and prostitutes, and they are usually in charge of the temple devadasis (maidservants of the goddess who similarly serve as dancers and female courtesans). Large festivals are celebrated at these temples wherein hundreds of scantily-clad devadasis and jogappas parade through the streets. The jogappa do not practice castration.[self-published source]
- A sculpture at the Kandariya Mahadeva temple in Khajuraho portrays a man reaching out to another's erect penis.
- An orgiastic group of three women and one man, on the southern wall of the Kandariya Mahadeva temple in Khajuraho. One of the women is caressing another.
- At the Lakshmana temple in Khajuraho (954 CE), a man receives fellatio from a seated male as part of an orgiastic scene.
- At the Rajarani Temple in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, dating from the 10th or 11th century, a sculpture depicts two women engaged in oral sex.
- A 12th-century Shiva temple in Bagali, Karnataka depicts a scene of apparent oral sex between two males on a sculpture below the shikhara.
- At Padhavli near Gwalior, a ruined temple from the 10th century shows a man within an orgiastic group receiving fellatio from another male.
- An 11th-century lifesize sandstone sculpture from Odisha, now in the Seattle Art Museum, shows the Kama, god of love, shooting a flower tipped arrow at two women who are embracing one another.
- Homosexuality in India
- LGBT Rights in India
- LGBT Rights in Sri Lanka
- Non-westernized concepts of male sexuality
- LGBT topics and the Hare Krishna movement
- Tamil Sexual Minorities
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (August 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Bonvillain, Nancy (2001). Women and men: cultural constructs of gender. Prentice Hall. p. 281. ISBN 978-0-13-025973-8.
- Keene, Michael (2002). Religion in Life and Society. Folens Limited. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-84303-295-3.
- "'Hinduism does not condemn homosexuality' - Rediff.com India News". news.rediff.com.
- Monalisa (11 December 2013). "Policy".
- "Homosexuality not a crime: RSS joint general secretary Dattatreya Hosabale". 18 March 2016.
- "Homosexuality not a crime, but unnatural: RSS - Times of India ►".
- The social construction of male 'homosexuality' in India, by S Asthana and R. Oostvogels, published in 'Social Science & Medicine', vol 52(2001), Quote: "Indian culture is highly homosocial and displays of affection, body contact and the sharing of beds between men is socially acceptable (Kahn, 1994) This creates opportunities for sexual contact, though sexual behavior in this context is rarely seen as real sex, but as play. Much of this same-sex sexual activity begins in adolescence between school friends and within family environments and is non-penetrative... Young men who cultivate such relationships do not consider themselves to be 'homosexual' but conceive their behavior in terms of sexual desire, opportunity, and pleasure."
- Males Who Have Sex with Males (MSM) and HIV/AIDS in India: The Hidden Epidemic, Gregory Pappas, Omar Khan, Jason Taylor Wright, Shivananda Khan, Lalitha Kumaramangalam, and Joseph O’Neill; Quote: "Manliness and Musti Another important aspect of MSM in the subcontinent is the meaning of manliness. Many men consider it a display of sexual prowess for an older, sexually dominant man to have sex with a young and/or submissive man or boy. Jokes and folk knowledge regarding sex incorporate this theme and create some flexibility for socially acceptable MSM behavior in an otherwise repressive environment.23 The notion of musti also provides an open space for sexual behavior. Musti is translated as “fun or mischief” in Hindi and Urdu; the word is understood by most to describe sexual release through ejaculation and non-penetrative sex. In that sense, oral sex or mutual masturbation is not considered to be “sex”; this affords the wider license to be given to musti between men. A phrase commonly heard is that a particular liaison was “just musti,” connoting that it is not to be taken seriously, and therefore below the level at which it would draw moral opprobrium. Musti is also tacitly acknowledged as a common part of boyhood experience: it is considered of little consequence, and it is believed that boys grow out of this behavior.24"
- The social construction of male 'homosexuality' in India, by S Asthana and R. Oostvogels, published in 'Social Science & Medicine', vol 52(2001), Quote: "As with Indian men and women, a social distance exists between masculine- and feminine-identified MSM and it is difficult to envisage a fundamental change in these arrangements - e.g. the development of more reciprocal social and sexual relations. It is therefore highly unlikely that a collective 'gay' consciousness and solidarity can be achieved in the Indian context. Indeed, care should be taken in assuming that an incipient 'gay movement' already exists in the country (Drucker, 1996)."
- HIV in India — A Complex Epidemic, Robert Steinbrook, M.D., N Engl J Med 2007; 356:1089-1093 March 15, 2007, Quote: "For many Indians, sex between men is not sex but “mischief,” and many men who have sex with men do not identify themselves as homosexual."
- The social construction of male 'homosexuality' in India, by S Asthana and R. Oostvogels, published in 'Social Science & Medicine', vol 52(2001), Quote: "In practice, however, MSM is often used interchangeably with that of 'gay men'."
- The social construction of male 'homosexuality' in India, by S Asthana and R. Oostvogels, published in 'Social Science & Medicine', vol 52(2001), Quote: "Thus, whilst there was more social acceptance of alternative sexual natures in the 1970s and more space emerged for sexual minorities to live their lives without repression, gay men also became more sexually isolated. Due to the tendency to associate male homosexuality with effeminacy, men who wished to preserve their masculine heterosexual self-image withdrew from homosexual circuits. Thus there was a decline in the proportion of men who had sex with men who were also involved in heterosexual relationships."
- Shrikumar, A. (October 18, 2013). "No more under siege". The Hindu. Chennai, India.
- "The Many Genders of Old India". The Gay & Lesbian Review.
- From section 377 of the Indian Penal Code: Whoever voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.
- The Times Of India https://web.archive.org/web/20160427121918/http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/photo.cms. Archived from the original on April 27, 2016. Missing or empty
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- Patel, Rashmi (27 August 2016). "Being LGBT in India: Some home truths".
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- Attitudes, and the law, keep India's gays quiet New York Times – January 19, 2006
- Entry on the movie "Fire", from IMDB (Internet Movie Database). Accessed on August 9, 2006.
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- 'Girlfriend' causes India storm, by Jayshree Bajoria, correspondent in Bombay for BBC News.
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- People's Union of Civil Liberties reports on sexual minorities
- Vanita, Ruth. Love's Rite: Same-Sex Marriage in India and the West. New Delhi, India: Penguin Books India, 2005.
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- Third sex gets official status in Tamil Nadu Pushpa Narayan, TNN; Times of India, March 16, 2008, 12.59am IST
- [Ruth Vanita and Saleem Kidwai, Same-Sex Love in India, 2000, the first section, sections 1 and 2, "Ancient Indian Materials" and "Medieval Materials in the Sanskritic Tradition" ; O'Flaherty, Wendy Doniger (1980). Women, Androgynes, and Other Mystical Beasts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 302–4
Thadani, Giti (1996). Sakhiyani: Lesbian Desire in Ancient and Modern India. London: Cassell. p. 65
Pattanaik, Devdutt (2002). The Man Who Was a Woman and Other Queer Tales from Hindu Lore, Haworth Press, ISBN 1-56023-181-5
- "Hindu Deities and the Third Sex (1)". Gay & Lesbian Vaishnava Association. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- "Hindu Deities and the Third Sex (2)". Gay & Lesbian Vaishnava Association. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- For a complete description of twenty-nine of the most gender-variant Hindu deities, see Part One, Chapter Three of Wilhelm's Tritiya-Prakriti: People of the Third Sex.
- "Hindu Deities and the Third Sex (2)". Gay & Lesbian Vaishnava Association. Archived from the original on 28 Feb 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
In Vedic literature, Sri Mitra-Varuna are portrayed as icons of brotherly affection and intimate friendship between males (the Sanskrit word Mitra means “friend” or “companion”). For this reason, they are worshiped by men of the third sex, albeit not as commonly as other Hindu deities. They are depicted riding a shark or crocodile together while bearing tridents, ropes, conch shells and water pots. Sometimes they are portrayed seated side-by-side on a golden chariot drawn by seven swans. Ancient Brahmana texts furthermore associate Sri Mitra-Varuna with the two lunar phases and same-sex relations: “Mitra and Varuna, on the other hand, are the two half-moons: the waxing one is Varuna and the waning one is Mitra. During the new-moon night, these two meet and when they are thus together they are pleased with a cake offering. Verily, all are pleased and all is obtained by any person knowing this. On that same night, Mitra implants his seed in Varuna and when the moon later wanes, that waning is produced from his seed.” (Shatapatha Brahmana 188.8.131.52) Varuna is similarly said to implant his seed in Mitra on the full-moon night for the purpose of securing its future waxing. In Hinduism, the new- and full-moon nights are discouraged times for procreation and consequently often associated with citrarata or unusual types of intercourse.
- Mahabharata Anushaasan Parva: Daandharma Parva, Chapter 12, shloka-1
- Vanita, Ruth and Saleem Kidwai. Same-Sex Love in India: Reading From Literature and History, pp. 100–102. New York, NY: Palgrave, 2001. For more details on other versions of this story, see Chapter Six of Love's Rite, by the same author.
- 'Expose the Hindu Taliban!' by Ashok Row Kavi
- Pattanaik, Devdutt (2001). Homosexuality in Ancient India, Debonair 2000 or 2001. Essay available online from GayBombay.org.
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- Danielou, Alain. The Complete Kama Sutra. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press, 1994.
- The Kama Sutra Of Vatsayana – Part 2, Chapter 8 Translation by Richard Burton (1883)
- Wilhelm, Amara Das. Tritiya-Prakriti: People of the Third Sex, pp. 267, 334. Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris Corporation, 2003.
- Same-Sex Love in India, edited by Ruth Vanita
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- p. 50-51, [https://books.google.co.in/books?id=uP57zh13BqQC&pg=PA50&dq=dharmasastra+ayoni&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiO3bmPkvXhAhXNh3AKHfKKB8IQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=dharmasastra%20ayoni&f=false Sexual Diversity in Asia, c. 600 - 1950 ], edited by Raquel A.G. Reyes, William Gervase Clarence-Smith
- p. 32, Love’s Rite: Same-Sex Marriage in India and the West, by Ruth Vanita
- Wilhelm, Amara Das. Tritiya-Prakriti: People of the Third Sex, p. 346. Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris Corporation, 2003
- Elizabeth Abbott, p. 329, A History of Celibacy
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- Gandhi's Tiger and Sita's Smile: Essays on Gender, Sexuality and Culture by Ruth Vanita. Yoda Press, 2005.
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- The Complete Kama Sutra by Alain Danielou. Park Street Press, 1994.
- The Man Who Was a Woman and Other Queer Tales from Hindu Lore by Devdutt Pattanaik. Harrington Park Press, 2002.
- Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History by Gilbert Herdt. Zone Books, 1993.
- The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association – Information and support for GLBTI Vaishnavas and Hindus.
- 'Hinduism does not condemn homosexuality'
- Pink Pages, India's National Gay and Lesbian Magazine - Interview of Amara Das Wilhelm, founder of GALVA.