KSLV-II

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KSLV-II (Nuri)
KSLV-II at the launch pad CGI Render 02.jpg
CGI render of a KSLV-II at the launch pad
FunctionOrbital launch vehicle
ManufacturerKARI
Country of originSouth Korea
Size
Height47.2 m (155 ft)[1]
Diameter3.5 m (11 ft)[1]
Mass200,000 kg (440,000 lb)[1]
Stages3[1]
Capacity
Payload to LEO (600~800km)1,500 kg (3,300 lb)
Payload to LEO (300km)[2]2,600 kg (5,700 lb)
First stage
Engines4 KRE-075 SL
Thrust266.4 tf (2,612 kN; 262.2 LTf; 293.7 STf)[2]
Specific impulse261.7s (SL), 298.1s (Vac.)[3]
Burn time127s[2]
FuelLOX / RP-1
Second stage
Engines1 KRE-075 Vac.
Thrust80.4 tf (788 kN; 79.1 LTf; 88.6 STf)[2]
Specific impulse315.4s (Vac.)[2]
Burn time148s[2]
FuelLOX / RP-1
Third stage
Engines1 KRE-007 Vac.
Thrust7.0 tf (69 kN; 6.9 LTf; 7.7 STf)[2]
Specific impulse325.1s (Vac.)[2]
Burn time498s[2]
FuelLOX / RP-1

KSLV-II, also known as Nuri (누리), is South Korea's second carrier rocket and the successor of KSLV-1.[4] This three-stage rocket is entirely developed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI), and planned launched into space in 2021.[5] All stages will use indigenously developed rocket engines. The South Korean government is setting SpaceX as a role model, especially in making cheaper and reliable rockets for commercial launch service. The goal is to launch a 1,500 kg payload into a 600–800 km low Earth orbit (LEO)[5] and 2,600 kg into a 300 km LEO.[6]

Specification[edit]

KSLV-II is a three-stage rocket. First stage booster uses four KRE-075 SL engines generating 266.4t of thrust with specific impulse of 289.1. Second stage booster uses a single KRE-075 Vac. engine, which uses a wider nozzle for efficiency in vacuum with specific impulse of 315.4. Third stage booster uses one KRE-007 engine with specific impulse of 325.1s. All engines use rocket-grade kerosene (RP-1) as its fuel and liquid oxygen (LOX) as its oxidizer.

Versions[edit]

Further improvements will be added after the success of KSLV-II program, such as replacing the current engine configurations with 86.6 ton force and increasing specific impulse to 315.4s. This will be possible with making the engine more light, for example, removing the ignitor or limiting the gimbal axis. The payload capacity of the improved KSLV-II will increase from 1.5t to 2.8t. [7]

Development[edit]

Engines development[edit]

  • In March 2014, the first combustion test of the 7-ton class combustor was successfully completed, and the total assembly and initial ignition test of the 7-ton class engine started in July 2015. In addition, the first phase of the project was completed with the addition of a three-stage engine combustion test facility and a combustor combustion test facility. However, the problem of combustion instability in the 75-ton burner remained a matter of rework.
  • Hanwha Techwin Co. has signed on January 25, 2016, a 14.1 billion won (US$11.77 million) contract with the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) to produce both types of liquid propellant rocket engines for the KSLV-II.[8]
  • On January 8, 2016, the second phase of the project was carried out to overcome the difficulties of combustor combustion instability and welding technology of the liquid engine fuel tank. Combustion test of the 75 ton class liquid engine which is at the core of the first and second stage propulsion. The combustion test of a few seconds was successful.
  • On May 3, 2016, the KARI's 75-ton rocket engine (engine to be used as on the first and second stage) at the Naro Space Center in Gohung, Jeollanam Province, started a 1.5 second short-time spark ignition test and burned for 75 seconds on June 8, 2016. Following the success, on July 20, 2016, at 1:39 pm, the final target combustion time of 145 seconds (147 seconds) was successfully achieved. During the combustion test, all the measured values such as combustion safety and combustion thrust were within the error range. It worked normally. During a real space launch, the first stage engine should burn for 127 seconds and the second stage engine for 143 seconds.
  • Starting from October 2016, combustion tests of the second 75 t-class liquid engine was conducted over 200 times to produce 17 test models of sea level and high-temperature combustion.

KRE-075 SL Engine[edit]

An artist rendering of the KSLV-II 75 ton-class engine
KRE-075 Engine
Fuel RP-1/LOX[9]
Thrust 66.6tf (SL), 75.9tf (Vac.)[3]
Specific Impulse 289.1s[3]
Height 2.9m
Diameter 2m
Cycle Gas Generator

The KRE-075 engine was developed after the 30tf engine development program.[10]

KRE-075 Vac. Engine[edit]

Fuel RP-1/LOX[9]
Thrust 80.3tf (Vac.)[3]
Specific Impulse 315.4s[3]
Cycle Gas Generator

KRE-007 Engine[edit]

Fuel RP-1/LOX[11]
Thrust 7.0tf[3]
Specific Impulse 325.1s[3]
Cycle Gas Generator


KSLV-II TLV[edit]

The Test Launch Vehicle (TLV) is a two stage-rocket, qualifying the performance of the KRE-075 engine which will power the KSLV-II. The TLV is 25.8 meters in length, 2.6 meters in diameter, and with a mass of 52.1 tons. The main-stage Kerolox engine is fully gimballed. [12][13] With the 2nd stage engine installed, the TLV will perform as a Small Sat Launch Vehicle.[14]

KSLV-II 2018 Flight[edit]

Wet Mass 52.1t[9]
Dry Mass 38 tons
Height 25.8m
Diameter 2.6m
Stages 1
Engine 1 KRE-075
Stages 2
- mass simulator

The TLV was launched from the Naro Space Center in Goheung, South Jeolla Province, on November 28th, 2018. The main objective of the first suborbital flight was for the single-stage rocket's main engine to burn 140 seconds, reaching a 100 km altitude before splashing down in the sea between Jeju Island and Okinawa Island.[15]

The maiden flight was first delayed from October 25, 2018, for two months, due to abnormal readings detected in the rocket propellant pressurization system.[16] The test flight was then rescheduled for November 28, 2018, at 16:00 KST(UTC+9). No payload is to be placed into orbit.[17]

The launch of the TLV while deemed successful with its main engine burning for 151 seconds in a 10 minute flight,[18] was not broadcast live.[19] After reaching a maximum suborbital altitude of 209 kilometers, the rocket stage hit the ocean 429 kilometers southeast of Jeju.[20]

Since the first flight ended successful, there won't be the second flight of the TLV.

Usage[edit]

KSLV-II will be used in launching several Earth observing satellites, such as KOMPSAT, medium-class satellites and LEO reconnaissance satellites. KSLV-II is planned to be used in South Korea's moon exploration mission to send orbiters and landers to the moon. KSLV-II will be South Korea's first rocket to enter the launch vehicle service market. KSLV-II's launch cost will be approximately $30 million, offering cheap launch service for South-East Asian countries.

Also, the improved version of the KSLV-II will be used to launch the Korean Lunar Lander by 2030.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Korea Space Launch Vehicle KSLV-Ⅱ". Korea Aerospace Research Institute.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "대한민국, 이제는 누구? - 한국형발사체 "누리호"!".
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "7톤/75톤급 엔진의 스펙/성능 + 누리호 발사대 설계".
  4. ^ "[출처: 중앙일보] 설계부터 제작까지 100% 국산 로켓 내달 발사". JoongAng Ilbo. September 7, 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Korea Space Launch Vehicle KSLV-II". Korea Aerospace Research Institute. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  6. ^ "네이버 뉴스".
  7. ^ "누리호 75톤급 엔진의 개량, 정지궤도 투입, 페이로드 옵션 그리고 재사용에 대하여".
  8. ^ "Hanwha Techwin to Produce Liquid Rocket Engine for Korea Space Launch Vehicle". 비즈니스코리아 - BusinessKorea. 26 January 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  9. ^ a b c https://i.servimg.com/u/f48/19/39/35/83/scree261.jpg
  10. ^ 한국항공우주연구원(KARI). "[KARI]연비가 향상된 로켓엔진 연소시험(100초) 공개". Retrieved 7 February 2019 – via YouTube.
  11. ^ https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DtGwi2ZUcAE46TX.jpg:large
  12. ^ 한국항공우주연구원 (10 September 2018). "올 10월로 다가올 #시험발사체 조립 장면 타임랩스 영상으로 만나 보시죠!pic.twitter.com/25hDmf2lAg". twitter.com. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  13. ^ "사진 > KARI IMAGE >". www.kari.re.kr. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  14. ^ "누리호 75톤급 엔진 시험발사체를 활용한 "소형발사체" 후속 개발에 대하여 (메탄 엔진을 사용하는 2단) > KARI IMAGE >".
  15. ^ 김한주 (28 November 2018). "S. Korea to test launch space rocket engine". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  16. ^ "S. Korea delays test launch of space rocket engine". English.yonhapnews.co.kr. 2018-10-17. Retrieved 2019-02-07.
  17. ^ 한국항공우주연구원 (13 November 2018). "11월 28일, 한국형발사체 '누리호'의 엔진시험을 위한 시험발사체 발사가 추진될 예정입니다.pic.twitter.com/9eOHhufcym". twitter.com. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  18. ^ 김한주 (28 November 2018). "(2nd LD) Space rocket engine burn time test meets target goal". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  19. ^ 한국항공우주연구원 (27 November 2018). "#시험발사체 발사 성공! 발사 모습을 영상으로 공개합니다.pic.twitter.com/lTkonvL7ax". twitter.com. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  20. ^ 김한주 (28 November 2018). "(2nd LD) S. Korea successfully tests space rocket engine". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2019.