Ferrari Mondial

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Ferrari Mondial
Ferrari-Mondial-3.2-side.jpg
Overview
ManufacturerFerrari
ProductionMondial 8:1980–1982
703 produced
Mondial qv:1983–1985
1,145 (coupe) produced
629 (cabriolet) produced
Mondial 3.2:1986–1988
987 (coupe) produced
810 (cabriolet) produced
Mondial t:1988–1993
858 (coupe) produced
1,017 (cabriolet) produced
AssemblyModena, Italy
DesignerLeonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina
Body and chassis
ClassSports car
Body style2+2 coupe
2+2 cabriolet
RelatedFerrari 208/308 GTB & GTS
Ferrari 328
Ferrari 348
Chronology
PredecessorFerrari 208/308 GT4

The Ferrari Mondial is a mid-engined, V8-powered grand tourer which was produced by Italian manufacturer Ferrari between 1980 and 1993. Offered with coupé and cabriolet bodystyles, it replaced the Ferrari 308/208 GT4 coupé and remained the last V8-engined 2+2 model Ferrari produced until the Ferrari California convertible and GTC4Lusso coupé were released in 2008 and 2016 respectively.

The Mondial name (French for world or global) originated from Ferrari's motor racing history — the 500 Mondial was a successful lightweight sports racer of the early 1950s which was named to celebrate Ferrari's consecutive Formula 1 World Championships in 1952 and 1953. The name was revived as Ferrari won the Formula 1 World Constructors Championships in 1975, 1976, 1977, and 1979. The Mondial name was also chosen as it was a double entendres, the car designed to meet global safety and emission standards for 1980. Conceived as a 'practical' Ferrari, the Mondial is a genuine long-distance four-seater, with sufficient rear head- and leg-room for children and smaller adults. It affords easy access via the long single doors, and has surprisingly good all-round visibility for a mid-engined car. The vehicle has a slightly higher roofline and greater all-round dimensions compared to its two-seater stable mates, resulting in a comparative weight penalty of around ten percent.[1]

The Mondial cabriolets are the only production vehicles manufactured to a four-seater, rear mid-engined, full-convertible design.

Design[edit]

The Ferrari Mondial is a mid-engined vehicle of the R-M-R configuration. It was produced in 2-door coupé and convertible (or cabriolet) forms, with all vehicles offering 2+2 passenger accommodation. It was produced concurrently with Ferrari's 2-seater 308 GTB/GTS, 328, and 348 sports cars, and all major mechanical systems in the Mondial, including engine, transmission, steering and suspension, are either identical to, or very similar to, those used on the matching 2-seater vehicle being produced at the same time.[2][3][4][5]

Unlike its GT4 predecessor which was styled by the Italian Gruppo Bertone, the Mondial was designed by famed designer Leonardo Fioravanti of Pininfarina in Turin, the vehicle designer with whom Ferrari had worked very closely since 1951.[1]:58

Chassis and body[edit]

Pininfarina's bodywork was manufactured by Ferrari's regular coachbuilder Carrozzeria Scaglietti. Its structure conformed with Ferrari's practice at the time, with outer body panels fitted onto a separate space-frame chassis constructed from tubular box or oval-shaped steel sections. While most body panels are steel pressings, the front lid and rear engine cover of the Mondial 8 and QV models are from aluminium.[1]:64[2] Full-width aluminium louvre panels across the front lid and engine cover form a distinctive feature of all Mondials, and provide for improved airflow through the front-mounted radiators and engine bay respectively.

Additional louvre grilles are located on each side of the vehicle just ahead of the rear wheels. Intake air is fed to the engine from the intake on the right-hand side, while the matching grille on the left side of the vehicle directs air into an external oil cooler nestled ahead of the rear wheel arch.[2] Louvres also feature in the front polished aluminium grille behind which sits the main radiator, supplied with coolant via alloy tubing running through the central chassis spine. A final full-width black louvre panel closes-off the rear of the car below the rear bumper, and through which protrudes a pair of exhaust outlets on each side of the vehicle. Front and rear bumpers are from black plastic on the Mondial 8 and QV, while the 3.2 and "t" models use integrated wrap-around glass-fibre panels finished in body colour.[1]:58,59

The Mondial chassis includes several detachable sub-frames holding major mechanical assemblies, including one at the rear supporting the entire engine/transmission/rear suspension assembly. This design considerably simplifies engine removal for a major rebuild or cylinder head removal compared to previous Ferrari V8 vehicles.[1]:60[2]

At the front of the vehicle, a front-hinged lid encloses space for the spare tyre, radiators and cooling fans, battery (ahead of a wheel arch), heating and cooling systems and the vehicle's electric control systems. At the rear, a full-width, insulated and trimmed luggage boot with a gas-strut-supported lid sits behind the engine bay, sizeable enough to hold several sizeable soft bags or set of golf clubs.[1]:73,74 Electrically actuated pop-up headlights fit flush to the vehicle nose, and contain twin round lamps in each for all 8, QV and 3.2 models, and a single homofocal rectangular unit each side of the Mondial t.[5]

Differences in body features between sales markets was small, with the most obvious being the prominent rectangular side turn-indicator lamps affixed front and rear to all U.S. marketed vehicles.[1]:60

Engine[edit]

Mondial 3.2 engine bay

All Mondials are fitted with a V8 engine which is essentially identical to that used in Ferrari's concurrent 2-seater 308/328/348 series vehicles. All engines derive from Ferrari's original 3.0 l (180 cu in) V8 powerplant first released in the 1974 Ferrari (Dino) 308 GT4, which in-turn was a two-cylinder extension of the V6 engine originally deployed in the Dino 206 GT of 1968.[1]:16, 49–54

At their core, all Mondial engines comprise: a Ferrari-cast lightweight alloy V8 block with 90° bank-angle; shrink-fit cylinder liners; a five-bearing, flat-plane crankshaft with paired connecting rods on each journal; belt-driven, quad overhead camshafts (two per cylinder bank) acting directly on the valves; alloy crossflow cylinder heads; and a wet-sump lubrication system (excepting the Mondial t, which used a dry-sump system).[1]:25–27,49–54,74[5] Engine capacity started at 3.0 l (180 cu in) for the Mondial 8 and QV models, increasing to 3.2 l (200 cu in) for the Mondial 3.2, and culminating in 3.4 l (210 cu in) for the Mondial t model. The orientation of the V8 engine block is quite different in the Mondial t compared to the earlier Mondials. Mirroring the two-seater Ferrari V8 vehicles, all 3.0 and 3.2 l engines sit across the car with their crankshaft and cylinder planes transverse to the main vehicle axis. The 3.4 l engine in the Mondial t (and 348 GTB cousin) is rotated ninety degrees to a longitudinal orientation with respect to the car.[5]

In the Mondial 8 the V8 employs two valves-per-cylinder, and this increases to four valves-per-cylinder for the Quattrovalvole QV and all later models.[3] All models feature a cast-alloy intake housing nestled centrally above the engine "vee" with manifold tubing running directly to each cylinder. Marelli electronic ignition is used on all vehicles with the exception of the Mondial t, and comprises twin coils, a separate distributor run off each bank of cylinders, and a common electronic control module. Again excepting the Mondial t, fuel metering is via Bosch K Jetronic continuous fuel injection with lambda exhaust sensing.[4] For the Mondial t, a Bosch Motronic 2.5 or 2.7 engine management system controls both the ignition and fuel metering functions.[5] Exhaust gases on all models are collected via 4-2-1 systems fitted to the outside of each cylinder bank, flowing through a one or two catalytic converters to twin outlets each side of the rear panel.[1]:74

In operation, the Ferrari V8 displayed impressive characteristics for the time, with good specific power values (between 71 and 88 bhp/l), high maximum-rpm limits of 7700 rpm (3.0 and 3.2 l) and 7500 rpm (3.4 l), a flexible torque range, and an undeniably Ferrari exhaust note all combining to produce an excellent sports-touring engine.

Ferrari Mondial V8 engine specifications[6][7][8][9]
Engine code Displacement Bore Stroke Power* Torque* Comp ratio Max rpm Years Vehicle model 0-60 Source
F106B 2,926 cc (178.6 cu in) 81 mm (3.2 in) 71 mm (2.8 in) 160 kW (214 hp) @ 6600 rpm 243 N⋅m (179 lb⋅ft) @ 4600 rpm 8.8:1 7700 1980-82 Mondial 8 8.2 sec Motor Trend 1981[10]
F105A 2,926 cc (178.6 cu in) 81 mm (3.2 in) 71 mm (2.8 in) 175 kW (235 hp) @ 6800 rpm 255 N⋅m (188 lb⋅ft) @ 5500 rpm 8.6:1 7700 1982-85 Mondial QV 6.4 sec Motor 1982[11]
F105C 3,185 cc (194.4 cu in) 83 mm (3.3 in) 73.6 mm (2.90 in) 200 kW (270 hp) @ 7000 rpm 304 N⋅m (224 lb⋅ft) @ 5500 rpm 9.8:1 7700 1985-89 Mondial 3.2 6.3 sec Car and Driver 1987[12]
F119D or G 3,405 cc (207.8 cu in) 85 mm (3.3 in) 75 mm (3.0 in) 220 kW (300 hp) @ 7200 rpm 323 N⋅m (238 lb⋅ft) @ 4200 rpm 10.4:1 7500 1989-93 Mondial t 5.6 sec Autocar June 1992[13]
  • Power and torque figures quoted are for European versions

Transmission[edit]

Mondial 3.2 Coupe interior

In the Mondial 8, QV and 3.2 models, the transmission housing is integral with the engine sump casting, albeit with its own oil supply, sitting below and slightly to one side of the main block.[4] Drive to the gearbox is via a single-plate, diaphragm-spring clutch and a set of drop-gears located outboard of the left-hand end of the crankshaft, with output torque feeding into a friction-plate limited-slip final drive unit offset to the rear of the gearbox.[1]:27–28,54,76

A five-speed, all-indirect manual transmission using a "dog-leg" selector pattern was the only transmission offered. Instead of the conventional "H" shift pattern, this arrangement (also known as a "reverse h-gate") has 1st gear situated to the far left and back, behind reverse. This pattern has been popular with racing gearboxes, as it allows quicker, more direct shifts between 2nd and 3rd, and 4th and 5th, gears. Output from the final drive to the rear wheels is via a pair of short, solid drive shafts fitted with constant-velocity joints at each end to allow for suspension articulation.

For these models, clutch actuation is hydraulic, unlike their two-seater cousins' cable systems, and transmission selection is via a rod which extends through the centre chassis tunnel and passes through the engine sump into the transmission housing.[1]:76

For the Mondial t, the engine and transmission were substantially reconfigured and their orientations rotated by ninety degrees to place the axes of both the engine crankshaft and the transmission input shafts parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal axis. The transmission and final-drive units form a combined transaxle arrangement fitted to the rear of the engine block, using a design originally derived from Ferrari's 312T Formula 1 car. Drive from the single-plate clutch enters the gearbox and is turned ninety degrees by bevel gears to the main transmission shafts which are aligned transverse to the vehicle. A parallel crownwheel with integral limited-slip action directs output torque to driveshafts with CV joints at each end. The clutch is hydraulically-actuated, and gear selection is via cable operation.[1]:76[5]

An "auto-clutch" option was available on the Mondial t, developed by French supplier Valeo. This system retained the conventional manual transmission mechanicals but replaced the normal clutch mechanism with an electro-mechanical one without a foot pedal. Clutch engagement and disengagement on the Valeo unit is triggered by movement of the gear-lever, although the electronic control unit combines data from sources including engine, road-speed and gear selection to warn against, or over-ride, attempted selections outside the specified operating limits.[1]:76[5]

Suspension and running gear[edit]

Mondial 8 and QV wheel (left)
Mondial 3.2 and t wheel (right)

Although based on the two-seater vehicle designs, Mondials are slightly larger overall including having appreciably wider front and rear track dimensions.[1]:38,60 Suspension systems are fully independent all-round, comprising unequal-length upper and lower wishbones, coil-over damper units and anti-roll bars at each end of the vehicle.[1]:77–78 Mondial t vehicles include a driver-adjustable selector to set the electronically controlled damper units, providing three choices of ride-stiffness adjustment.[5]

Steering is a rack-and-pinion mechanism sitting ahead of the front wheels, unpowered on all 8, QV and 3.2 models. Hydraulic power-assistance was standard on the subsequent Mondial t model. Braking is via four-wheel ventilated disks with split-circuit vacuum assistance on all vehicles. Anti-lock braking (ABS) was available as an option in 1987, and it was fitted as standard from 1988.[5]

Road wheels on all vehicles are of a five-spoke alloy design in a clear-lacquered finish. Two distinct patterns were used: the Mondial 8 and QV models have wheels with a flat centre and pronounced edges to the five spokes, whereas the 3.2 and t models' wheels have a convex centre and smoother, angled spokes. All wheels feature a yellow circular centre cap bearing Ferrari's black Cavallino Rampante rearing-horse logo.[1]:78–89[4]

Mondials until the late 1980s, including all 8 and QV models and many 3.2s, were originally fitted with Michelin TRX tyres of size 220/55 VR 390 front and 240/55 VR390 rear. TRX tyres require wheels with the proprietary TRX rim profile, meaning all vehicles fitted with such wheels could only utilise TRX-style tyres. Later 3.2 vehicles and the Mondial t reverted to industry-standard wheel designs of size 7x16 front and 8x16 rear, enabling a far wider range of tyre choices to suit the 205/55 VR16 front and 225/55 VR16 rear tyre specifications.[1]:78–79

Interior[edit]

Ferrari 3.2 Coupe interior

The seats and interior of all Mondial variants are fully trimmed in Connolly hide with the exception of the use of black vinyl for the dashboard top and upper door linings. Paint, upholstery and carpet colours generally match those available on Ferrari's concurrent two-seater models, with the commonest choices being Rosso Corsa or Rosso Dino (reds), Azzurro (blue) and Nero (black), in combination with beige, tan or black leather. All seats including those in the rear are strongly bucket-shaped, and fitted with inertia-reel seatbelts.[1]:66–71

A central tunnel for the chassis structure is prominent in both front and rear footwells, and is straddled by a large front centre console with a polished open-gated gear selector and electronic warning-light panel. Electric windows (the front panes only are opening) and air-conditioning are standard fitments, with their controls on the central console. The handbrake is located outside the driver's seat beside the inner sill, and is a "drop-down" design to assist ingress and egress. A three-spoked leather steering wheel is mounted to a steering column adjustable for reach and rake, behind which is a "pod-style" instrument binnacle holding six gauges: speedometer, tachometer, fuel level, water temperature, oil pressure and oil temperature. The Mondial instrumentation is completed with a comprehensive set of warning lights and electronic check panels.[1]:66–73

History[edit]

The Mondial has been one of Ferrari's most commercially successful models, with over 6,000 examples produced over its thirteen-year run. The Mondial underwent many updates throughout its production with four distinct variants produced: the Mondial 8, Mondial QV, Mondial 3.2, and Mondial t. All but the Mondial 8 were released in both coupé and cabriolet (convertible) body form.[1]:58–60

Starting with the Mondial 8 coupé launched in 1980, the vehicle which served as sole V8-engined Grand Touring or "GT" vehicle within the Ferrari range proved to be a disappointment to some Ferrari enthusiasts. With a body that was larger, heavier and less aerodynamically efficient than the equivalent two-seater models, combined with the introduction of tougher emission standards which significantly dropped power outputs, overall vehicle performance inevitably decreased. In addition, Ferrari responded to new safety requirements, especially in the U.S., with large, black, over-dominant bumpers which were considered to have negatively affected the external design. The fact that the Mondial 8 was a significantly more expensive vehicle than its better-performing two-seater 308 GTBi sister somewhat compounded the situation.[1]:58–60[2]

Ferrari acted quickly just two years later in 1982 to address the straight-line performance issues, by upgrading the engine with a new four-valve head. This model, the Mondial Quattrovalvole or QV, shared its engine with the contemporary two-seaters 308 GTB/GTS QV. A new cabriolet version was also introduced at this time, a body style which would be carried forward through all subsequent Mondial models.[1]:58–60[3]

The next evolution was the Mondial 3.2 produced from 1985, which saw the engine grow in displacement and power, and both the internal and external styling significantly refreshed. This car has enjoyed strong popularity within the Mondial range due to it being a good all-round performer and one of the last Ferraris to have the relatively straightforward maintenance provided by the Ferrari 328 engine and transmission configuration.[1]:58–60[4]

The final Mondial variant was the Mondial t, released in 1989. This contained some of the biggest changes in the Mondial history, with an even-larger 3.4 l (210 cu in) engine, a substantial update to the exterior styling and interior ergonomics, and with an entirely new, albeit more complex to service, powertrain. Overall the Mondial t is considered the best vehicle in the range regarding overall performance and refinement, although it is often noted that this comes at the cost of greater maintenance.[1]:58–60[5]

Production of the Mondial ceased in 1993, with a total of 6,149 vehicles from all variants having been manufactured.[1]:79

Mondial 8[edit]

Mondial 8
Ferrari Mondial 8 in Vlaams-Brabant.JPG
Overview
Production1980–1982
Body and chassis
Body style2+2 coupe
LayoutTransverse, mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine3.0 L Tipo F106B FI V8
Transmission5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,650 mm (104 in)
Length4,580 mm (180 in)
Width1,790 mm (70 in)
Height1,250 mm (49 in)
Curb weight1,569 kg (3,459 lb)

The first Mondial iteration introduced as the Mondial 8 at the 1980 Geneva Auto Salon.[14] It was the first Ferrari to depart from the company's simple 3-digit naming scheme, and some reviews found it relatively mild, compared to other Ferraris, regarding performance, drawing criticism from some in the motoring press.[14] It used a mid/rear-mounted Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection V8, shared with the 308 GTBi/GTSi, mounted transversely. The engine used in the 1973 Dino 308 GT4. The K-Jetronic system is mechanical, with a high-pressure pump which streams fuel continuously to the injectors; it does not have a computer, just a few relays to handle the cold start sequence etc. The chassis was also based on the 308 GT4, but with a 100-millimetre-longer (3.9 in) wheelbase at 2,650 mm (104.3 in). The suspension was the classic layout of unequal-length double wishbones and Koni dampers all around.

Today, the Mondial 8 is considered one of the marque's most "practical" vehicles, due to its 214 hp (160 kW), proven drivetrain, four seats, and relatively low cost of maintenance (major services performed without removing the entire engine/transmission subframe). 703 examples made. At the time of release, the base price was $64,000 (1981) (or $167,530 in 2015 dollars.)

The Mondial 8 is often the target of negative perceptions due to what many considered unworthy performance for the marque. Two of the three major US automotive publications (Road & Track, Car and Driver) yielded negative performance results that found the Mondial much slower than the 308 GTBi/GTSi

Road and Track November 1981[15]*(Reported faulty shifter) 0-60: 9.4s 1/4 Mile: 17.1s

Car and Driver November 1981[16]*(Pre-production model) 0-60: 9.3s 1/4 Mile: 16.9s

In contradistinction, Motor Trend yielded better performance numbers nearing the 308 GTBi/GTSi:Motor Trend November 1981[17] 0-60: 8.2 1/4 Mile: 16.2

Mondial 8 Production started: 1980. Production ended: 1982. Total production: 703 (145 Right Hand Drive) - 147 Imported to US/CA First serial number: 31075. Last serial number: 41727.

Rear view of Mondial 8

Mondial Quattrovalvole[edit]

Mondial QV (Quattrovalvole)
Lancia Motor Club Goodwood Track Day 2010 IMG 9907 - Flickr - tonylanciabeta.jpg
Overview
Production1982–1985
Body and chassis
Body style2+2 coupe
2+2 cabriolet
LayoutTransverse, mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine3.0 L Tipo F105A 32V V8
Transmission5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,650 mm (104 in)
Length4,580 mm (180 in)
Width1,790 mm (70 in)
Height1,260 mm (50 in)
Curb weight1,555 kg (3,428 lb)
1,607 kg (3,543 lb) (Cabriolet)

The first Mondial engine, although a DOHC design, used just two valves per cylinder. The 1982 Quattrovalvole or QV introduced a new four-valve head; the combustion chamber design purportedly based on the early eighties Formula 1 engine. Again, the engine was shared with the contemporary 308 GTB/GTS QV, and produced a much more respectable 240 hp (179 kW). Appearance was largely as per the Mondial 8, although with red engine heads and prominent "Quattrovalvole" script at the rear. 1,145 coupés built between 1982 and 1985.

Mondial QV Production started: 1982. Production ended: 1985. Total production: 1,145, (152 Right Hand Drive) - 69 Imported to US/CA First serial number: 48037. Last serial number: 55507.

Mondial QV Cabriolet[edit]

A new Cabriolet body style added for 1983. Body styling remained the same as the coupé variant, with the roof maintaining the 'buttress' design of the roof, though the Cabriolet required the rear seats to be mounted closer together laterally. The introduction of the Cabriolet saw the popularity of the Mondial rise, particularly in the American market, where the convertible body style was highly desirable. The Cabriolet has the added distinction of being the only four-seat, mid-rear engine, convertible automobile ever manufactured in regular production. 629 units were produced between 1983 and 1985, making this the rarest version of the Mondial.

Mondial QV Cabriolet Production started: 1983. Production ended: 1985. Total production: 629 (27 Right Hand Drive) - 282 Imported to US/CA First serial number: 47247. Last serial number: 59163.

Rear view of Mondial Quattrovalvole

Mondial 3.2[edit]

Mondial 3.2
Ferrari-Mondial-3.2-side.jpg
Overview
Production1985–1988
Body and chassis
Body style2+2 coupe
2+2 cabriolet
LayoutTransverse, mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine3.2 L Tipo F105C 4v V8
Transmission5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,650 mm (104 in)
Length4,535 mm (179 in)
Width1,795 mm (71 in)
Height1,235 mm (49 in)
1,265 mm (50 in) (Cabriolet)
Curb weight1,540 kg (3,395 lb)
1,607 kg (3,543 lb) (Cabriolet)

Like the new Ferrari 328, the Mondial's engine grew in both bore and stroke to 3.2 L (3,185 cc) in 1985. Output was now 270 PS (199 kW; 266 hp). The Mondial 3.2 was first presented at the 1985 Frankfurt Auto Show in September that year.[18]

Available in both Coupé and Cabriolet forms, styling refreshed with restyled and body-coloured bumpers, similar to the 328 with more integrated indicators and driving lamps, and new alloy wheels with a more rounded face. The 3.2 also boasted a major interior update, with a more ergonomic layout and a more rounded instrument binnacle. Later cars, from 1987 onwards, also sported ABS brakes. Fuel injection remained the primarily mechanical Bosch K-Jetronic (CIS) with an O2 sensor in the exhaust providing feedback to a simple computer for mixture trimming via a pulse modulated frequency valve that regulated control fuel pressure. The ignition system was Marelli Microplex, with electronic advance control and one distributor per bank of the V8. The 1988 Mondial 3.2 would be the final model year that retained the relatively low maintenance costs of the 308/328 drivetrain, allowing major service items like timing belt and clutch replacement performed with the engine/transmission package still in the car.

3.2 Mondial Coupe Production started: 1985. Production ended: 1988. Total production: 987 (91 Right Hand Drive) - 87 Imported to US/CA First serial number: 59165. Last serial number: 79671.

3.2 Mondial Cabriolet Production started: 1985. Production ended: 1988. Total production: 810, (57 Right Hand Drive) - 449 Imported to US/CA First serial number: 59393. Last serial number: 78895.

Ferrari Mondial 3.2 Cabriolet

Mondial t[edit]

Mondial t
Mondial t 1.jpg
Overview
Production1988–1993 (MY 1989-1993) Coupe: 858 (45 RHD)
43 Imported to USA
Cabriolet: 1,017 (51 RHD)
379 Imported to USA
Body and chassis
Body style2+2 coupe
2+2 cabriolet
LayoutLongitudinal, mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine3.4 L Tipo F119D V8
3.4 L Tipo F119G V8
Transmission5-speed manual
Valeo auto-manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,650 mm (104 in)
Length4,535 mm (179 in)
Width1,810 mm (71 in)
Height1,235 mm (49 in)
Curb weight1,560 kg (3,439 lb)
1,570 kg (3,461 lb) (Cabriolet)

The final Mondial evolution was 1989's Mondial t (Coupe and Cabriolet). It was a substantially changed model, "spearhead of a new generation of V8 Ferraris", according to Road & Track magazine. It was visually different from preceding Mondial models, the most recognizable being the redesign of the air intakes to a smaller rectangular shape. Additionally, the door-handles were of a visually different design, as were the front and rear bumpers which became body colored. New front and rear wings cover wider tracks and are re-profiled to a fuller shape compared to previous models, which feature a rolled lip.

The 't' called attention to the car's new engine/transmission layout: the previously transverse engine mounted longitudinally while the gearbox remained transverse, thus forming a 't'. The 't' suffix was also homage to the first use of a transverse transmission by Ferrari in the highly successful Ferrari 312T,[19] driven by F1 World Champion Niki Lauda. By adopting this layout, a longer engine could be mounted lower in the chassis, improving handling dramatically. The 't' configuration was used by Ferrari's Formula One cars of the 1980s, and would be the standard for the marque's future mid-engined V8 cars, beginning with the 348, introduced later in the year. The transverse manual gearbox fitted with a Limited Slip Differential with a twin-plate clutch design with bevel gears driving the wheels. Later in production, a Semi-automatic transmission termed "Valeo" was available as an option; while shifting was using a traditional gear lever, the clutch was actuated automatically without a clutch pedal. The engine was up to 3.4 L (3405 cc) and 300 hp (224 kW). The engine controlled by Bosch Motronic DME 2.5 (later DME 2.7) electronic engine management that integrated EFI and ignition control into a single computer unit. Two of these used in the car: one for each bank of the engine. Engine lubrication upgraded to a dry-sump system.

The Mondial's chassis would underpin a new generation of 2-seat Ferraris, right up to the Ferrari 360[20], but the 2+2 Mondial would end production just four and a half years later in 1993. However, the "t" layout of the engine and transaxle, adapted from Ferrari's Formula One cars, continues to be used in mid-engined V8 model Ferraris to date, albeit with a more sophisticated chassis. The new layout saw the engine and transmission mounted on a removable subframe; the assembly removed from the underside of the vehicle for maintenance. This process is necessary for timing belt replacement, making this a costly procedure for the owner who does not have a lift. On the other hand, the clutch was now located at the very rear of the drive train. This arrangement makes clutch replacement and service a simple, inexpensive, and readily owner-doable proposition.

The "t" was home to other Ferrari firsts: It used power assisted steering for the first time and had a 3-position electronically controlled suspension for a variable tradeoff between ride quality and road holding. It also had standard ABS.

The Mondial t represented the most substantial upgrade to the Mondial model line in performance and handling since its introduction in 1980. The "t" offered greater performance while retaining a mid-engined layout and a practical packaging layout, and was once again, favorably received.

The company has not produced a mid-engined 2+2 car since then, leaving the 2+2 configuration to the more classic front-engined design starting with the 456 in 1992. As of 2016, the V12 GTC4Lusso along with the V8 California are the company's only 4-seat vehicle offerings, but both of these are front engined, leaving the Mondial t as the most modern 4-seat, mid-engined, Ferrari yet produced.

Mondial t Coupe: Production started: 1988. Production ended: 1993. Total production: 858 (45 Right Hand Drive) - 43 Imported to US/CA First serial number: 79596. Last serial number: 97698.

Mondial t Cabriolet: Production started: 1989. Production ended: 1993. Total production: 1,017 (51 Right Hand Drive) - 379 Imported to US/CA First serial number: 80399. Last serial number: 97733.

Mondial t coupe

PPG Indy Pace Car[edit]

A Mondial-t was manufactured exclusively by Ferrari for PPG Industries to use as a pace car for the PPG Indy Car World Series. Built under the design of I.DE.A Institute at a cost of approximately $1 million, it was introduced at the 1989 Champion Spark Plugs 300 in Laguna Seca. The vehicle used Mondial t chassis 76390 as its basis, and included significant external body modifications in its design.[21]

In 2004, one of its examples was offered at a Christie's auction held during the 2004 24 Hours of Le Mans, where it sold for €70,500.[21]

Press reports[edit]

Mondial 8[edit]

The Mondial 8 received a mixed range of reviews upon release; the automotive press was unanimous in their accolades of the Mondial 8's road manners, but a number of sources were quite critical of the vehicle's performance, especially when compared to earlier or concurrent Ferrari models. In more recent times, several retrospective articles have rated the Mondial 8 poorly, with Time magazine going as far as including the Mondial 8 in their list of the 50 worst cars of all time.[22]

"..it must be icing on the cake for the Mondial owner to know that he has bought not just the most rational Ferrari design, but certainly the best handling one. And if that's a surprise to you, it certainly was to us." MotorSport 1981[23]
"..every component in its make-up standing at alert ready to play its part in ensuring a balance and grip which mark this down as easily the best handling Ferrari." Wheels 1982[24]
"The engine produces a respectable 214 horsepower in European trim. I suspect the U.S. powerplant will be quite off that with your rather amusing "potato-in-the-exhaust-pipe methods of pollution control. The Mondial I drove (privately owned) covered the one-quarter mile in a little over 15.25 seconds. Naturally, the car available on your shores (US) will be noticeably slower as mentioned previously." Road Test 1981[25]
"Like other Ferraris, its road manners are impressive. In our skidpad evaluation, the car worked its way up to a delicate oversteering stance, one in which either power or liftoff would swing the rear end out gently. Maximum lateral acceleration was 0.812g, essentially identical to that of our last 308's. We had no opportunity slalom the Mondial, but we'd estimate its performance be in the sam range as the 308's 60.6 mph." Road & Track 1981[26]
"The Mondial is a wink or two slower than the 308...1/4 mile in the low 16s terminal speeds favor the 308 by 2 MPH. ...The Mondial is not the greatest Ferrari ever issued by Maranello, but it is by no means the least". Motor Trend 1981[17]
"When it comes to getting around corners, the Mondial inspires confidence. the extra foot of wheelbase makes the car feel a good deal more stable than the shorter 308 in practically any operating situation-straight head at high speed, caning it around fast sweeper or scrambling in decreasing-radius sphincter-thighteners." Motor Trend 1981[27]
"The long wheelbase gives the Mondial a decisive advantage over the 308 in straight-ahead stability; ...it turns with the poise of a dancer but only when you turn the wheel." Car 1981[28]

It seems likely that the stigmas bestowed upon the Mondial line trace to a few negative articles written about the early Mondial 8. Three top US automotive publications (Motor Trend, Car & Driver, and Road & Track) all published reviews of the Mondial 8 in the fall of 1981. Road & Track and Car & Driver reported comparatively disappointing performance results.[15][16] Road & Track noted a faulty gear selector which may have contributed to the overall poor showing. Car & Driver received a pre-production model, which may have contributed to poor performance. Motor Trend's review was much more favourable, and recorded performance on par with the 308 GTBi/GTSi and Porsche 928. There was never any definitive conclusion on these performance disparities; Automobile magazine has suggested that the vehicle's engine being new (not "broken-in") as the reason their observed 0-60 time was below expectations, since the sample vehicle tested by Motor Trend had an engine with significantly greater mileage.[29]

Mondial QV[edit]

The Quattrovalvole was better received by the automotive press and the public, although some of the previous poor reviews for the Mondial 8 engendered negative perceptions that would follow the Mondial line throughout its life.

"The 4-valve engine gives vastly improved performance off the line, as Americans want to enjoy, much stronger acceleration all the way up...We now feel that the Ferrari has a Mondial with real raison d'être; faster, better looking, with wind-in-the-hair driving and all the attention from the sidelines you can handle. The Cabriolet was genuinely admired by most observers; drive it, and you will be not be ignored." Road and Track 1984[30]
"..the new four-valve-per-cylinder quattrovalvole V-8 gives to the Mondial the essential Ferrari oomph that was lacking with the two-valve engine. This is an easy Ferrari to drive: the clutch is soft, the shifter relatively smooth, the steering doesn't kick back." Car and Driver 1984
"..a Mondial is a pleasurable automobile capable of rocketing along at obscene speeds or, with minor reluctance, cruising slowly along a boulevard. It accords one every dividend expected from ownership of a Ferrari and the message has obviously been well communicated-Mondial production is sold out, for the second consecutive year."  Sports Car Illustrated 1985[citation needed]
"When you're in the mood, it's as exciting to drive as any Ferrari should be - as Ferraris always have been. The difference with this Ferrari, though, is that if your mood changes, if traffic or road conditions force a change of tempo, the Mondial is still a friendly car in which to drive and to ride." Motor 1982[31]
"The Quattrovalvole engine is a turning point in the Mondial's fortunes. Before the acquisition of the extra power, the Mondial's performance was pleasant but not supercar-ish enough to please those who can be - and were - easily won over to other camps. Now it has the urge to please a wider area of buyers, coupled the refinement of suspension, ride quality noise suppression and drivetrain smoothness that makes it uncompromisingly modern. Plus a very high build quality and enough promise of real durability to set the sale on longevity..." Car 1983[32]
"...the Mondial Quattrovalvole does a splendid job keeping the Ferrari magic alive, combining it with the performance that one takes for granted from a car carrying the Prancing Horse emblem and offering high levels of trim and refinement to satisfy the discerning buyer." Motorsport 1983[33]

Mondial 3.2[edit]

The 3.2 received very positive reviews from the automotive press:

"It is a car with few rivals, perhaps the closest being the Porsche 928S...once you have experienced the wonderful noise produced by the V8 engine in full cry, and sat behind that steering wheel, with the power surging in, you can forgive the car for the few detractions it may have. They seem to pale into insignificance as the rev counter needle sweeps past the 7000rpm mark and you slam that gear lever through the gate. It is a different world of motoring." Autocar 1986[34]
"This Ferrari handles like most other Ferraris: heavy steering effort, moderate understeer right up to the limits of adhesion, good ultimate cornering power, superb braking power and stability, and flawless high speed tracking of a Japanese bullet train. The engine is also typically Ferrari-that is, truly wonderful."  MotorTrend 1987
"I marvel at how little compromise it asks. All the panache of a mid-engine Ferrari with plenty of head room too...The length, as Paul Frere says, makes the handling very easy. Longer wheelbase means less angle for rear movement and makes it easier to drive the car. And I like how nicely it responds to the accelerator. Backing off for corners, it comes out just right. Even the American version now goes much quicker than the early European version. The Mondial is a good compromise between ride and handling."  Road and Track 1986[35]
"We racked up 600 or 700 miles during our Memorial Day weekend and became quite attached to this Ferrari...It won us 1001 compliments about our fine taste in automobiles...All things considered, our trip by Ferrari was more entertaining than the race we went to see." Car and Driver 1987[36]

Mondial t[edit]

The t was the final evolution of the series, and once again received universal praise from the press:

"(The) duality of the practical and the exotic sums up the Mondial very well. Despite their quirks, Ferraris have earned enviable reputations as durable machines when maintained properly. And because of their quirks, these cars offer added satisfaction to those learning how to drive them properly. Driven fast or slow the Mondial (t) is exhilarating." Road and Track 1991[37]
"Not only does the Mondial t Cabriolet offer all the right pieces, but it also tingles your soul with all the right sensations...Admittedly, the Mondial t Cabriolet provides only a taste of the Grand Prix experience. But it's a stronger flavor than almost any other car can provide. Plus, the Mondial t is easily the most comfortable and practical of the high-priced Italian exotics." Car and Driver 1991[38]
"The old Mondial was much better than its reputation, and the new Mondial t is better still. To me, it is the most desirable Ferrari this side of an F40, and for about $82,000, it certainly is one of the few remaining buys in the exotic league. If you are ready for the challenge, grab one now before the word gets around and the line grows long." Automobile 1989[39]
"That the Mondial is fun to drive, fast and practical should make it Ferrari's most popular car. After all, it does much of what a Porsche 911 does for much the same sort of money - and adds extra style, greater handling competence, and an even finer engine. Now that it has been so intelligently worked-over, and so discreetly yet effectively improved, its appeal is stronger than ever. Yet sales are unlikely to improve. Why is this wonderful car so unfairly ignored?" Car 1989[40]
"The Mondial emerged as that motoring contradiction: a practical Ferrari. The Mondial t has enough performance to be enthralling, ride comfort enough to teach some mid-range saloon car manufacturers a thing or two and a mild whiff of the Prancing Horse mystique. This becomes positively rampant when the V8 is busking in the higher rpm ranges and the plump tyres are being asked to do some work. Maranello Concessionaires candidly admits that it is not easy to persuade customers to try the charms of the Mondial, "but once we got them into one, they swear by them and are quite likely buy another." Motorsport 1992[41]
"It may not provide the fun and exhilaration of an F40, but the Mondial t is a jolly fine, very fast car.." Road and Track 1990[42]
"..it's a glorious chariot. It tends to get a bit ignored because it looks a little gawky alongside the gorgeous 348, whose engine it shares...But it's more fun. Its chassis is emphatically more friendly and more communicative. The 348 might have might have bigger tyres and a higher ultimate level of sheer grip. But making use of it is a real task. In the Mondial, you can explore the limit, because the chassis and steering work more progressively and provide better feedback." Car 1993[43]
"The Mondial exhibited more predictable behavior than its two-seat relatives pushing gently into a corner and announcing its intention to oversteer in advance...the Mondial t does not have the nervous feel of the 348...raw speed is not the essence of a car like the Mondial, plenty of other cars can go as fast, but none with the sound and feel of the prancing horse." John Davis, MotorWeek[44]


Media appearances[edit]

Model
Mondial QV Cabriolet
Weird Science, 1985
Madonna: Material Girl Music Video, 1985
Lionel Richie: Dancing On the Ceiling Music Video, 1985
Mondial 3.2 Cabriolet
Into the Night, 1985
The Hidden, 1987
Dirty Rotten Scoundrels, 1988
Only You, 1994
Mondial T Cabriolet
Scent of a Woman, 1992
Father of the Bride Part II, 1995
Vegas Vacation, 1997

Legacy[edit]

With its one-of-a-kind Pininfarina derived design; everyday versatility, the Mondial has amassed a cult following of enthusiasts. It historically has not received widespread admiration however and is sometimes the target of derision due to what many consider the compromises (4 seats and heavier weight) Ferrari undertook creating the car in both form and function. Some early negative reviews for the first model, the Mondial 8, has often been repeated by derivative articles that further tarnished the Mondial image across the subsequent six iterations.[45]

Many current enthusiasts have welcomed the contrary views, as it has allowed the price of the model to remain relatively stable and Ferrari ownership and parts manageable, many speculate (and some lament) that it will inevitably rise significantly in value.[46][47][48][49][50][51]

The Mondial has also garnered more positive press in recent media.

In my car collection, I have a Mondial QV... I love my Mondial with a passion. My car guy pals think I'm just a little bit strange, why you got a Mondial QV? Because it's just a cool car. What they don't understand is that I need cars to communicate with me....and it puts a smile on me face. This really is a cool car.

-John Pogson - The Drive May 2016
6 Time British Championship Winner for Ferrari
15 Years Ferrari Engineer in Maranello
25 Years Ferrari Specialist in Italia Autosport

"The Mondial has been the perennial underdog Ferrari along with the V-12 400i/412. Both are having the last laugh, but Mondial prices in particular have been climbing. Offered in 2+2 coupe and convertible body styles, the Mondial shares the revvy 308/328/348 flat-plane crank V-8 with all of the visceral thrills that entails. Striking Pininfarina looks, decent reliability, Ferrari sounds and room in back for the kids? What’s not to like?" -Hagerty - August 2015

"..the V8 sings and the chassis is a delight, with many thinking it sweeter in the ride and handling than the equivalent two-seat models...Find a good one and you’ll get one of Ferrari’s most reliable and inexpensive cars." -Mark Pearson "Autocar" May 2015

"The Mondial might be a four-seat GT car on paper, but it's still a mid-engined screaming Ferrari at Heart." -Terry Shea "Hemmings Sports & Exotic Car" August 2014

"The Mondial is a highly usable, underrated Ferrari with good parts availability..." -Malcom McKay - "Classic Sports Car" June 2013

"Ferrari Mondial makes an excellent practical classic Ferrari. With four seats, a comfortable ride, that quintessential Ferrari sound track and in later forms - impressive handling and performance, the Mondial represents excellent value for the money." -"Italia" July 2012

In 2012, Top Gear reviewed a 1980 Mondial 8, nominating the Mondial and the F50 as the two Ferrari contenders for "the worst car in the history of the world." James May compared it to "Lennon & McCartney's Eggman - rubbish," criticized the performance, handling, and interior space, and stated that anybody who bought one would be "bitterly disappointed." Jeremy Clarkson decided that the F50 was a "worse catastrophe in Ferrari's history."[52]

In 2015, a pristine 1991 Mondial t coupe sold for €95,200 + (12% buyers premium + 20% VAT on premium) = €108,909, or approximately $117,000 US Dollars[53]

The Ferrari Mondial has many misconceptions and urban myths. Historical negative commentary fall under four categories:

1. Performance 2. Reliability 3. Price 4. Aesthetics

In regards to performance, there was a question of the straight line speed for only the first model, the United States variant (which had additional performance inhibiting emissions control equipment) of the Mondial 8 (80-82). The United States variant of the Mondial 8 represents only 147 (or 2%) of the over 6,000 examples produced during the vehicle's lifetime. There were three formal road tests for the United States variant of the Mondial 8 in 1980. Two trials (Car and Driver/Road & Track) lamented straight line speed, one (Motor Trend) test applauded it.[17] Handling is universally praised by the press at the time for all models (including the Mondial 8) and straight-line performance on par with other exotics for all subsequent iterations.

Reliability is another common critique. The Mondial 8,qv, and 3.2 lines shares the exact powertrain and many parts as the 308/328, both regarded as the more reliable Ferrari.[54]

The Mondial is often described as the 'entry-level' Ferrari. The reality is the Mondial was substantially more expensive than the 308/328 when new.

The view of the Mondial's aesthetics has always been a matter of debate. Given the subjective nature of visual design, it is the one criticism that has merit based only on personal judgment.

I think it's Ferrari's most elegant car...the Mondial's shape is perfect...In short, the Mondial is the one Ferrari that causes heads to turn in appreciation rather than shock.

-John Phillips III of Automobile 1987[55]

The styling of the Ferrari Mondial Coupe indeed of most Ferraris is best described as timeless; the Pininfarina penned lines still look fresh after eleven years and have influenced the design of sports cars from Detroit to Tokyo.[44]

John Davis

-MotorWeek

"At its launch in 1980, the Mondial 8 was criticized for its styling, weight and lacklustre performance, but time has been kind to the eight-cylinder Fezza. In fact, the restrained styling is central to its appeal."

-Motoring Research 2016

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Bluemel, Keith (1997). Original Ferrari V8. The Restorer's Guide to all models 1974-94. Devon, England: Bay View Books, MBI Publishing. ISBN 1-870979-78-8. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e Ferrari. "Past Models - Ferrari Mondial 8". auto.ferrari.com. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  3. ^ a b c Ferrari. "Past Models - Ferrari Mondial Quattrovalvole". auto.ferrari.com. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e Ferrari. "Past Models - Ferrari Mondial 3.2". auto.ferrari.com. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ferrari. "Past Models - Ferrari Mondial T". auto.ferrari.com. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  6. ^ Ferrari. "Ferrari Owners Manual - Mondial 8". www.unevoiture.com. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  7. ^ Ferrari. "Ferrari Owners Manual - Mondial QV". www.unevoiture.com. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  8. ^ Ferrari. "Ferrari Owners Manual - Mondial 3.2". www.unevoiture.com. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  9. ^ Ferrari. "Ferrari Owners Manual - Mondial t". www.unevoiture.com. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  10. ^ "MotorTrend 1981 Review" (PDF).
  11. ^ "Motor 1982 Mondial QV Review" (PDF).
  12. ^ "Car and Drier 1987 Review" (PDF).
  13. ^ "Autocar Full Road Test 1992" (PDF).
  14. ^ a b Bluemel, Kieth. Mondial The Affordable Ferrari? (Magazine scan). Unique Motor Books. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-84155-584-3.
  15. ^ a b "Ferrari Mondial 8 Review" (PDF). roadandtrack.com. Retrieved 2015-07-15.
  16. ^ a b "Ferrari Mondial 8 Review" (PDF). caranddriver.com. Retrieved 2015-07-15.
  17. ^ a b c "Ferrari Mondial 8 Review" (PDF). motortrend.com. Retrieved 2015-07-15.
  18. ^ Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (8 March 1990). Automobil Revue 1990 (in German and French). 85. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag AG. p. 262. ISBN 3-444-00495-8.
  19. ^ "1989 - 1993 Ferrari Mondial T Review @ Top Speed". Top Speed. Retrieved 2017-08-21.
  20. ^ "Steve Cropley".
  21. ^ a b "Ferrari Mondial T 'Speciale' Pace Car | Christie's". Christies.com. Retrieved 2015-07-15.
  22. ^ "Ferrari Mondial Buyers Guide". drive-my.com. 2015-09-01. Retrieved 2015-10-29.
  23. ^ "Motorsport Mondial 8 Handling" (PDF).
  24. ^ "Wheels 1982" (PDF).
  25. ^ "Road Test Mondial 8 1982" (PDF).
  26. ^ "Road and Track 1981 Test" (PDF).
  27. ^ "Motor Trend Test" (PDF).
  28. ^ "Car 1981 Mondial Test" (PDF).
  29. ^ "Mondial 8 Review" (PDF). autoweek.com. Retrieved 2015-07-15.
  30. ^ "Road and Track 1984 Mondial QV" (PDF).
  31. ^ "Motor 1982 Mondial QV Review" (PDF).
  32. ^ "Car Magazine Mondial QV Review" (PDF).
  33. ^ "Motorsport 1983 Mondial Review" (PDF).
  34. ^ "AutoCar 1986 Mondial 3.2" (PDF).
  35. ^ "Ferrari Fantasy Road and Track" (PDF).
  36. ^ "Car and Driver 1987 3.2 Mondial Review" (PDF).
  37. ^ "Road and Track Mondial t 1991" (PDF).
  38. ^ "Car and Driver Review Mondial t" (PDF).
  39. ^ "Automobile 1989 Review" (PDF).
  40. ^ "Car Magazine 1989 Review" (PDF).
  41. ^ "Motorsport 1992 Review" (PDF).
  42. ^ "Road and Track 1990 Review" (PDF).
  43. ^ "Car Magazine Review" (PDF).
  44. ^ a b "Motorweek and the Ferrari Mondial t coupe".
  45. ^ "Ferrari's V8: Mondial".
  46. ^ "1990s Ferraris and an Alfa with only 2,600 miles from new". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-07-15.
  47. ^ "Outrageously High Price Tags".
  48. ^ "Hagerty's 10 Future Classics to Buy Right Now".
  49. ^ "Emerging Classics".
  50. ^ Golseth, Andrew. "Is This Mondial Your Affordable Entry Into Ferrari Ownership? - Petrolicious". Petrolicious. Retrieved 2016-06-07.
  51. ^ "How to buy a supercar: Autocar's expert guide | Autocar". www.autocar.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-10-15.
  52. ^ The Worst Car in the History of the World, chapter 5, 12:29
  53. ^ "1991 Ferrari Mondial". "https://auctionata.com". Retrieved 2015-09-29.
  54. ^ "308/328 Buyer's Guide".
  55. ^ "Automobile Mondial 3.2 Review" (PDF).
  • Buckley, Martin; Rees, Chris (1998). World Encyclopedia of Cars. London: Anness Publishing. ISBN 1-84038-083-7.