Commercial Crew Development

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Commercial Crew Development Program
NASA Commercial Crew Program logo.svg
PurposeEarth-to-orbit crew and cargo transport
Program history
Maiden flightCrew Dragon Demo-1
March 2, 2019
First crewed flightCrew Dragon Demo-2 or Boeing Crewed Flight Test
NET December 2019
Launch site(s)
Vehicle information
Crew vehicle
Crew capacity7
Launch vehicle(s)

Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) is a human spaceflight development program that is funded by the U.S. government and administered by NASA. CCDev will result in US and international astronauts flying to the International Space Station (ISS) on privately operated crew vehicles.

Operational contracts to fly astronauts were awarded in September 2014 to SpaceX and Boeing.[1] Test flights of Dragon 2 and CST-100 are scheduled for 2019.[2] Pending completion of the demonstration flights, each company is contracted to supply six flights to ISS between 2019 and 2024.[3] The first group of astronauts was announced on 3 August 2018.[4]


Key high-level requirements for the Commercial Crew vehicles include:

  • Safely deliver and return four crew members and their equipment to the International Space Station (ISS)[5][6]
  • Provide assured crew return in the event of an emergency[5]
  • Serve as a 24-hour safe haven in the event of an emergency[5][6]
  • Capable of remaining docked to the station for 210 days[5][6]

Development program overview[edit]

After the retirement of STS in 2011, the US had no domestic vehicles capable of launching astronauts to space.[7] The next major human spaceflight initiative will launch in 2021 as Artemis 2 on the Space Launch System.[8]

In the meantime, NASA continued to send astronauts to the ISS on Soyuz spacecraft seats purchased from Russia.[9] The price has varied over time, with the batch of seats from 2016 to 2017 costing 70.7 million per passenger per flight.[10] The intent of CCDev is to develop safe and reliable commercial ISS crew launch capabilities to replace the Soyuz flights. CCDev follows Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS), an ISS commercial cargo program.[11] CCDec contracts are issued for fixed-price, pay-for-performance milestones.[12]

CCDev 1[edit]

Construction of the CST-100 pressure vessel was one of Boeing's CCDev 1 milestones

Commercial Crew Development phase 1 (CCDev 1) consisted of $50 million awarded in 2010 to five US companies to develop human spaceflight concepts and technologies.[11][13][14]

NASA awarded development funds to five companies under CCDev 1:

CCDev 2[edit]

The construction of a Dragon crew mock-up was one of SpaceX's CCDev 2 milestones[disputed ]

On 18 April 2011, NASA awarded nearly $270 million to four companies for developing U.S. vehicles that could fly astronauts after the Space Shuttle fleet's retirement.[20]

Funded proposals:[21]

Proposals selected without NASA funding:

Proposals not selected:


Flight testing of the Dream Chaser Engineering Test Article was one of Sierra Nevada's CCiCap milestones[disputed ]

Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap) was originally called CCDev 3.[36] For this phase of the program, NASA wanted proposals to be complete, end-to-end concepts of operation, including spacecraft, launch vehicles, launch services, ground and mission operations, and recovery. In September 2011, NASA released a draft request for proposals (RFP).[37]

The final RFP was released on February 7, 2012, with proposals due on March 23, 2012.[38][39]

The funded Space Act Agreements were awarded on August 3, 2012, and amended on August 15, 2013.[40][41]

The selected proposals were announced 3 August 2012:

CPC phase 1[edit]

The first phase of the Certification Products Contract (CPC) involved the development of a certification plan with engineering standards, tests, and analyses.[42]

Winners of funding of phase 1 of the CPC, announced on December 10, 2012, were:[42]

  • Sierra Nevada Corporation: $10 million
  • SpaceX: $9.6 million
  • Boeing: $9.9 million

CCtCap - crew flights awarded[edit]

The Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) is the second phase of the CPC and included the final development, testing and verifications to allow crewed demonstration flights to the ISS.[42] [43] NASA issued the draft CCtCap contract's Request For Proposals (RFP) on 19 July 2013 with a response date of 15 August 2013.[43]

On 16 September 2014, NASA announced that Boeing and SpaceX had received contracts to provide crewed launch services to the ISS. Boeing could receive up to US$4.2 billion, while SpaceX could receive up to US$2.6 billion.[1]

Both the CST-100 and Dragon 2 will fly an uncrewed flight, then a crewed certification flight, then up to six operational flights to the ISS.[44][45]

Current events[edit]

Ongoing delays[edit]

The first flight of the CCDev program was planned to occur in 2015, but insufficient funding caused delays.[46][47][48]

As the spacecraft entered the testing and production phase, technical issues have also caused delays.[citation needed]

CST-100 valve issue[edit]

Crew Dragon explosion[edit]

On 20 April 2019, an issue arose during a static fire test of Crew Dragon.[49] The accident destroyed the capsule which was planned to be used for the In-Flight Abort Test (IFAT).[50] SpaceX confirmed that the capsule exploded.[51] NASA has stated that the explosion will delay the planned in-flight abort and crewed orbital tests.[52]

Test flights[edit]

NASA Commercial Crew.jpg

NASA has ordered twelve operational missions to deliver astronauts to the International Space Station, six with each supplier.[3] Astronaut selections for the first four missions were announced on August 2, 2018.[4]

Spacecraft Mission Description Crew Date Outcome
Dragon 2 Uncrewed test flight. DM-1 launched on 2 March 2019 and docked to ISS PMA-2/IDA-2 docking port a little under 24 hours after launch. The Dragon spent 5 days docked to ISS before undocking and landing on 8 March 2019. None 2 March 2019[53] Success
Dragon 2 A Falcon 9 will launch a Dragon 2 from LC-39A before the spacecraft will perform a launch abort at Max q in order to test Dragon 2's launch abort system. None 23 November 2019 Planned
CST-100 Uncrewed test flight. Will mark the first flight of an Atlas V with a dual engine Centaur upper stage. The CST-100 will spend approximately 8 days docked to the ISS before undocking and landing somewhere in the United States. None NET December 17 2019[54] Planned
Dragon 2 Crewed test flight. Dragon 2 will launch with two crew members and dock to the ISS under 24 hours later. The Dragon will spend one to two weeks docked to the ISS before returning to Earth. United States Robert Behnken
United States Douglas Hurley
NET December 2019 Planned
CST-100 Extended crewed test flight, might deliver ISS Expedition 62/63 crew to ISS. United States Michael Fincke
United States Christopher Ferguson
United States Nicole Aunapu Mann
NET Q1 2020[55] Planned

ISS crew rotation flights[edit]

Spacecraft Mission Description Crew Date Outcome
Dragon 2 USCV-1 Deliver ISS Expedition 64/65 crew United States Michael S. Hopkins
United States Victor Glover
JapanSoichi Noguchi
May 2020 Planned
CST-100 USCV-2 Deliver ISS Expedition 66/67 crew. Would be only the fourth US Spaceflight to have a female Commander. United States Sunita Williams
United States Josh Cassada
France Thomas Pesquet
December 2020 Planned

Funding summary[edit]

Requested vs appropriated funding by year up to 2015

The first flight of the CCDev program was planned to occur in 2015, but insufficient funding caused delays.[46][48]

For the fiscal year (FY) 2011 budget, US$500 million was requested for the CCDev program, but Congress granted only $270 million.[56] For the FY 2012 budget, $850 million was requested and $406 million approved.[47] For the FY 2013 budget, 830 million was requested and $488 million approved.[57] For the FY 2014 budget, $821 million was requested and $696 million approved.[46][58] In FY 2015, $848 million was requested and $805 million, or 95%, was approved.[59]

The funding of all commercial crew contractors for each phase of the CCP program is as follows—CCtCap values are maxima and include post-development operational flights.[quantify]

Funding Summary (millions of US$)
(2010–current[needs update]
Manufacturers of spacecraft
Boeing 18.0 112.9 480.0 9.9 4,200.0 4,820.9
SpaceX 75.0 460.0 9.6 2,600.0 3,144.6
Sierra Nevada Corporation 20.0 105.6 227.5 10.0 362.1
Blue Origin 3.7 22.0 25.7
Manufacturers of launch vehicles and equipment
United Launch Alliance 6.7 - 6.7
Paragon Space Development Corporation 1.4 1.4
Total: 49.8 315.5 1,167.5 29.6 6,800.0 8,362.4

See also[edit]

NASA Commercial Crew and Cargo
Initiative Period

Commercial Cargo Development 2006–2013
Commercial Space Transportation Capabilities 2007–2010
Commercial Crew Development (phase 1) 2010–2011
Commercial Crew Development (phase 2) 2011–2012
Commercial Crew integrated Capability (phase 3)
(base period milestones)
Commercial Crew integrated Capability (phase 4)
(optional period milestones)
Certification Products Contract (crew) 2012–2014
Commercial Crew Transportation Capability 2014–2017
Commercial Resupply Services (cargo) 2011–2016
ISS Crew Transportation Services (crew) 2017–present

NASA's COTS program
Private spaceflight companies


  1. ^ a b Bolden, Charlie. "American Companies Selected to Return Astronaut Launches to American Soil". Retrieved September 16, 2014.
  2. ^ "SpaceX delays commercial crew test flights to latter half of 2018". January 11, 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Boeing, SpaceX Secure Additional Crewed Missions Under NASA's Commercial Space Transport Program".
  4. ^ a b "NASA Assigns Crews to First Test Flights, Missions on Commercial Spacecraft". NASA. August 3, 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d Bayt, Rob (July 26, 2011). "Commercial Crew Program: Key Driving Requirements Walkthrough". NASA. Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  6. ^ a b c "Commercial Crew Program – fact sheet" (PDF). NASA. February 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  7. ^ Denise Chow (April 14, 2011). "NASA Faces Awkward, Unfortunate Spaceflight Gap". Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  8. ^ Daines, Gary (December 1, 2016). "First Flight With Crew Will Mark Important Step on Journey to Mars".
  9. ^ "NASA officials mulling the possibility of purchasing Soyuz seats for 2019".
  10. ^ "NASA to Pay $70 Million a Seat to Fly Astronauts on Russian Spacecraft".
  11. ^ a b "Selection Statement For Commercial Crew Development" (PDF). JSC-CCDev-1. NASA. December 9, 2008. Retrieved February 10, 2011.
  12. ^ "Moving Forward: Commercial Crew Development Building the Next Era in Spaceflight" (PDF). Rendezvous. NASA. 2010. pp. 10–17. Retrieved February 14, 2011. Just as in the COTS projects, in the CCDev project we have fixed-price, pay-for-performance milestones," Thorn said. "There's no extra money invested by NASA if the projects cost more than projected.
  13. ^ "NASA Selects Commercial Firms to Begin Development of Crew Transportation Concepts and Technology Demonstrations for Human Spaceflight Using Recovery Act Funds". press release. NASA. February 1, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2010.
  14. ^ "Commercial Crew and Cargo Program" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2010.
  15. ^ Jeff Foust. "Blue Origin proposes orbital vehicle".
  16. ^ NASA Selects Boeing for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Award to Study Crew Capsule-based Design
  17. ^ "CCDev Information". NASA. July 20, 2010.
  18. ^ "SNC receives largest award of NASA's CCDev Competitive Contract". SNC. February 1, 2010. Archived from the original on February 7, 2010.
  19. ^ "NASA Selects United Launch Alliance for Commercial Crew Development Program". February 2, 2010. Archived from the original on December 7, 2013. Retrieved May 19, 2010.
  20. ^ Dean, James. "NASA awards $270 million for commercial crew efforts"., April 18, 2011.
  21. ^ Morring, Frank, Jr. (April 22, 2011). "Five Vehicles Vie To Succeed Space Shuttle". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on December 21, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2011. the CCDev-2 awards, ... went to Blue Origin, Boeing, Sierra Nevada Corp. and Space Exploration Technologies Inc. (SpaceX).
  22. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 15, 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), p. 2-1
  23. ^ " Blue Origin Technology" Archived January 10, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. Blue Origin. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  24. ^ "Taking the next step: Commercial Crew Development Round 2". SpaceX Updates webpage. SpaceX. 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2011-01-17.
  25. ^ Boeing Submits Proposal for 2nd Round Of Commercial Crew Dev. spaceflight news, December 14, 2010, accessed December 27, 2010.
  26. ^ "NASA Begins Commercial Partnership With United Launch Alliance". NASA. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
  27. ^ Malik, Tariq (2010-02-08). "Scrapped NASA Rocket May be Resurrected for Commercial Launches". Retrieved 2010-02-10.
  28. ^ "NASA, private firm may team up on Liberty rocket". USA Today. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  29. ^ "Commercial Crew Program Forum Presentation" Archived October 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, p. 7., September 16, 2011.
  30. ^ "CCP and Excalibur Sign Space Act Agreement". NASA.
  31. ^ "Excalibur Almaz, NASA sign commercial spaceflight deal"
  32. ^ "The Shape of Things to Come – Orbital's Prometheus™ Space Plane Ready for NASA's Commercial Crew Development Initiative" (PDF).
  33. ^ "(press release) Paragon Space Development Corporation Completes All Development Milestones on the NASA Commercial Crew Development Program" (PDF). Paragon. January 31, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 15, 2011.
  34. ^ Boyle, Alan (February 11, 2011). "Let's talk about the final frontier". Cosmic Log. MSNBC. Archived from the original on February 15, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-13. the proposal calls for the development of a spaceship that could be sent into space on a variety of launch vehicles. ... "Up to eight crew, Soyuz-like architecture (recoverable reusable crew element, expendable orbital/cargo module). Incorporates HMX's patented integral abort system (uses OMS/RCS propellant in separate abort engines). Can fly on Atlas 401 [a configuration for the Atlas 5 rocket], F9 [SpaceX's Falcon 9] or Taurus II (enhanced) but with a reduced cargo and crew capability on the latter vehicle. Goal is to be the lowest-price provider on a per-seat basis. Nominal land recovery with water backup."
  35. ^ "NASA weighs plan to keep shuttle until 2017 – Technology & science – Space – NBC News".
  36. ^ "COMMERCIAL CREW INTEGRATED CAPABILITY". NASA. 2012-01-23. Retrieved 25 January 2012.
  37. ^ "Statement of William H. Gerstenmaier, Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, National Aeronautics and Space Administration; before the Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics Committee on Science, Space and Technology; U. S. House of Representatives" (PDF). October 12, 2011. pp. 6–7. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  38. ^ "CCiCap Solicitation". NASA. February 7, 2012. Archived from the original on February 16, 2013. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
  39. ^ "Commercial Crew Integrated Capability Pre-Proposal Conference". NASA. February 14, 2012. Archived from the original on February 17, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
  40. ^ a b c d e "NASA Announces Next Steps in Effort to Launch Americans from U.S. Soil". NASA. August 3, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
  41. ^ a b "NASA Announces Additional Commercial Crew Development Milestones". Space Ref. SpaceRef Interactive Inc. August 15, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
  42. ^ a b c d "NASA Awards Contracts In Next Step Toward Safely Launching American Astronauts From U.S. Soil". NASA. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
  43. ^ a b "NASA Commercial Crew Transportation Capability Contract CCTCAP Draft RFP". SpaceREF. July 19, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
  44. ^ Foust, Jeff (2014-09-19). "NASA Commercial Crew Awards Leave Unanswered Questions". Space News. Retrieved 2014-09-21. We basically awarded based on the proposals that we were given," Kathy Lueders, NASA commercial crew program manager, said in a teleconference with reporters after the announcement. "Both contracts have the same requirements. The companies proposed the value within which they were able to do the work, and the government accepted that.
  45. ^ a b "RELEASE 14-256 NASA Chooses American Companies to Transport U.S. Astronauts to International Space Station". NASA. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
  46. ^ a b c Norris, Guy (31 May 2013). "NASA Chief Repeats Warnings On Commercial Crew Delays". Aviation Week. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  47. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (2011-11-23). "Reduced budget threatens delay in private spaceships". Spaceflightnow. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
  48. ^ a b "CSF President Michael Lopez-Alegria Statement on NASA Contract Extension with Roscosmos". Commercial Spaceflight Federation. 2 May 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  49. ^ Bridenstine, Jim. "NASA has been notified about the results of the @SpaceX Static Fire Test and the anomaly that occurred during the final test. We will work closely to ensure we safely move forward with our Commercial Crew Program". TWITTER. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  50. ^ Gebhardt, Chris (August 11, 2017). "SpaceX and Boeing in home stretch for Commercial Crew readiness". Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  51. ^ Mosher, Dave. "SpaceX confirmed that its Crew Dragon spaceship for NASA was 'destroyed' by a recent test. Here's what we learned about the explosive failure". Business Insider. Retrieved 2019-05-06.
  52. ^ "NASA boss says no doubt SpaceX explosion delays flight program". June 18, 2019. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  53. ^ "Demo-1 Flight Readiness Concludes". Retrieved 2019-02-22.
  54. ^ Foust, Jeff. "Boeing, SpaceX press towards commercial crew test flights this year". Spacenews. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  55. ^ Foust, Jeff. "Boeing, SpaceX press towards commercial crew test flights this year". Spacenews. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  56. ^ "Senate Panel Cuts Commercial Crew, Adds Funds for Orion and Heavy Lift". Space News. July 21, 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
  57. ^ McAlister, Phillip (18 April 2013). "Commercial Spaceflight Update" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  58. ^ Joe Pappalardo (September 16, 2014). "Is the Relationship Between NASA and Private Space About to Sour?". Popular Mechanics.
  59. ^ Clark, Stephen (2014-12-14). "NASA gets budget hike in spending bill passed by Congress". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 2014-12-15.
  60. ^ "NASA Selects Commercial Firms to Begin Development of Crew Transportation Concepts and Technology Demonstrations for Human Spaceflight Using Recovery Act Funds". press release. NASA. February 1, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
  61. ^ "NASA Awards Next Set Of Commercial Crew Development Agreements". press release. NASA. April 18, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
  62. ^ "NASA Releases Commercial Crew Draft RFP, Announces CCDEV2 Optional Milestones". press release. NASA. September 19, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2012.

External links[edit]