Camfranglais

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Camfranglais
Francanglais
Native toCameroon
Date1970s
French Creoles
  • Camfranglais
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Camfranglais, Francanglais, or Francamglais (portmanteau of the French adjectives camerounais, français, and anglais) is a pidgin language of Cameroon, consisting of a macaronic mixture of Cameroonian French, Cameroonian English and Cameroonian Pidgin English, in addition to lexical contributions from various indigenous languages of Cameroon.

The language blend is common among young people in the country, and rivals Cameroonian Pidgin English ("Creole") as the country's most common lingua franca.[1] It is most popular in the high-density urban centres where anglophones and francophones meet.[2] Camfranglais has caused concern for educators, who worry that the language blend may hinder acquisition of regular French and English and may be seen as a shortcut around true bilingualism.[2] Studies are underway over Camfranglais, which some academics consider to be on its way to becoming a proper language.[1]

History[edit]

Camfranglais first emerged in the mid-1970s after the reunification of Francophone Cameroun and Anglophone Southern Cameroons. It is believed to have originated in the markets, ports, schools, and sports stadiums of Cameroon's larger cities.[3] It became fashionable in the late 1990s, due partially to its use by popular musicians.[3] Camfranglais continues to be used in music today, in the work of musicians like Koppo, Krotal, and AkSangGrave, as well as by writers such as Kalalobe and Labang.[4]

Today, Camfranglais sees widespread unofficial use in the Cameroonian education system. Though Cameroon claims both French and English as official languages, elementary schools teach in only a single language. Thus, elementary pupils are surrounded by others that primarily speak the same language. It is not until secondary school that learning the other becomes mandatory. This helps explain why Camfranglais sees use in secondary school environments, as it is the first time that many students from different linguistic backgrounds begin to attend the same schools. Furthermore, Camfranglais is a hidden language, mainly used by speakers as a way to hide their conversations, or appear mysterious to others.[5] As such, it has grown rapidly within the Cameroonian secondary school system, where students use it to communicate without being understood by outsiders.[5]

Classification[edit]

While it is classified as a pidgin language, this is inaccurate. Speakers are already fluent in either English and French, and as such it is not used in situations where both parties lack a common tongue. As a whole, Camfranglais sets itself apart from other pidgins and creoles in that it consists of an array of languages, at least one of which is already known by those speaking it. For instance, while it contains elements of borrowing, code-switching, and pidgin languages, it is not a contact language as both parties can be presumed to speak French, the lexifer.[5] Numerous other classifications have been proposed, like ‘pidgin’, ‘argot’, ‘youth language’, a ‘sabir camerounais’, an ‘appropriation vernaculaire du français’ or a ‘hybrid slang’.[4] However, as Camfranglais is more developed than a slang, this too is insufficient.[6] Kießling proposes it be classified as a 'highly hybrid sociolect of the urban youth type", a definition that Stein-Kanjora agrees with.[7]

Usage and Popularity[edit]

Camfranglais has been accepted and embraced by Cameroon's urban youth population, particularly on the internet. In fact, this acceptance has created what some consider to be a 'Camfranglais Cult' among the youth.[4] While the reasons for this are many, Stein-Kanjora posits that by choosing it over French, English, or indigenous languages, the youth are able to form a modern, urban identity, separate from the colonial and tribal connotations of older languages.[4]

Camfranglais is predominantly used by youth between the ages of 12 and 26.[4] Additionally, although the number of female speakers is growing, the language is mainly used and developed by males, at least partially due to active exclusion of women by male speakers.[4]

Examples[edit]

Camfranglais Translation[8]
Franglais French English
Tu go où? Tu vas où? Where are you going?
Je vais te see tomorrow. Je vais te voir demain. I will see you tomorrow.
J'ai buy l'affci au bateau. J'ai acheté ceci au marché. I bought this stuff at the market.
Il est sorti nayo nayo. Il est sorti très lentement. He went out very slowly.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Niba.
  2. ^ a b DeLancey and DeLancey 131.
  3. ^ a b DeLancey, Mark W., and Mark Dike DeLancey (2000): Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon (3rd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Stein-Kanjora, Gardy (2015-12-06). "Camfrang forever! Metacommunication in and about Camfranglais". Sociolinguistic Studies. 10 (1–2): 261–289. doi:10.1558/sols.v10i1-2.27951. ISSN 1750-8649.
  5. ^ a b c Kouega, Jean-Paul (2003). "Camfranglais: A novel slang in Cameroon schools". English Today. 19 (02). doi:10.1017/s0266078403002050. ISSN 0266-0784.
  6. ^ Kougea, 264
  7. ^ Kießling, R. (2005). bak mwa me do'-Camfranglais in Cameroon. Lingua posnaniensis, 47, 87-107. Stein-Kanjora, 263
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference :02 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  • DeLancey, Mark W., and Mark Dike DeLancey (2000): Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon (3rd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press.
  • Niba, Francis Ngwa (20 February 2007). "New language for divided Cameroon". BBC News. Accessed 20 February 2007.
  • Kouega, Jean-Paul (2003a). Camfranglais: A novel slang in Cameroon schools. English Today 19 (2), 23-29.
  • Kouega, Jean-Paul (2003b). Word formative processes in Camfranglais. World Englishes 22 (4), 511-538.

External links[edit]