|1948 by topic|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2701|
|Balinese saka calendar||1869–1870|
|British Regnal year||12 Geo. 6 – 13 Geo. 6|
|Chinese calendar||丁亥年 (Fire Pig)|
4644 or 4584
— to —
戊子年 (Earth Rat)
4645 or 4585
|- Vikram Samvat||2004–2005|
|- Shaka Samvat||1869–1870|
|- Kali Yuga||5048–5049|
|Japanese calendar||Shōwa 23|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 13 days|
|Minguo calendar||ROC 37|
|Thai solar calendar||2491|
2074 or 1693 or 921
— to —
2075 or 1694 or 922
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1948.|
1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1948th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 948th year of the 2nd millennium, the 48th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1940s decade.
- 1 Events
- 2 Births
- 3 Deaths
- 4 Nobel Prizes
- 5 References
- January 1
- January 4 – Burma gains its independence from the United Kingdom, becoming an independent republic, named the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first President and U Nu its first Prime Minister.
- January 5
- January 7 – Kentucky Air National Guard pilot Thomas Mantell crashes while in pursuit of a supposed UFO.
- January 12 – Mahatma Gandhi begins his fast-unto-death in Delhi to stop communal violence during the Partition of India.
- January 17 – A truce is declared between nationalist Indonesian and Dutch troops in Java.
- January 22 – British foreign secretary Ernest Bevin proposes the formation of a Western Union between Britain, France, and the Benelux countries to stand up against the Soviet Union. The Treaty of Brussels is signed March 17 as a consequence, a predecessor to NATO.
- January 26 – Teigin poison case: a man masquerading as a doctor poisons 12 of 16 bank employees of the Tokyo branch of Imperial Bank and takes the money; artist Sadamichi Hirasawa is later sentenced to death for the crime, but is never executed.
- January 29
- January 30
- January 31 – The British crown colony of the Malayan Union, Penang and Malacca form the Federation of Malaya.
- February 1
- February 4 – Ceylon (later known as Sri Lanka) becomes an independent kingdom within the British Commonwealth.
- February 16 – Miranda, innermost of the large moons of Uranus, is discovered by Gerard Kuiper.
- February 18 – Éamon de Valera, Irish head of government since 1932, loses power to an opposition coalition. John A. Costello is appointed Taoiseach by President Seán T. O'Kelly.
- February 19 – The Conference of Youth and Students of Southeast Asia Fighting for Freedom and Independence convenes in Calcutta.
- February 21 – The United States stock car racing organization NASCAR is founded by Bill France, Sr. with other drivers.
- February 22 – The first of the Ben Yehuda Street bombings in Jerusalem kills between 49 and 58 civilians and injures between 140 and 200.
- February 25 – 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état: Edvard Beneš, President of Czechoslovakia, cedes control of the country to the Communist Party, a day celebrated by that regime as "Victorious February" (Czech: Vítězný únor; Slovak: Víťazný Február) until November 1989.
- February 28
- Accra Riots: Riots take place in Accra, capital of the British colony of Gold Coast, when a peaceful protest march by ex-servicemen is broken up by police, leaving several members of the group dead, among them Sergeant Adjetey, one of the leaders.
- The 2nd Congress of the Communist Party of India convenes in Calcutta.
- March 8 – McCollum v. Board of Education: The United States Supreme Court rules that religious instruction in public schools violates the U.S. Constitution.
- March 12 – The Costa Rican Civil War begins.
- March 16 – The largest flood in the history of Brampton, Ontario, occurs.
- March 17
- March 18 – The Round Table Conference in The Hague, Netherlands for the preparation of the decolonization process for Aruba and the other Dutch Colonies. Aruba presents the mandate of the Aruban People for Aruba to become an Independent Country, under the souvereignty of the House of Orange, based on Aruba's first state constitution presented officially since August 1947, and a (4th) Member State of the future Dutch Commonwealth.
- March 20
- Singapore holds its first elections.
- Renowned Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini makes his television debut, conducting the NBC Symphony Orchestra in an all-Wagner program in the United States.
- The 20th Academy Awards ceremony is held in Los Angeles. Gentleman's Agreement wins the Academy Award for Best Picture.
- April 1 – Physicists Ralph Asher Alpher and George Gamow publish the Alpher–Bethe–Gamow paper about the Big Bang.
- April 3
- United States President Harry S. Truman signs the Marshall Plan, which authorizes $5 billion in aid for 16 countries.
- Jeju Uprising – residents revolt on Jeju island, South Korea, eventually leading to the deaths of between 14,000 and 30,000.
- Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 is played on television in its entirety for the first time in a series of concerts featuring Arturo Toscanini conducting the NBC Symphony Orchestra in the United States. The chorus is conducted by Robert Shaw.
- April 5 – 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine: Haganah launches Operation Nachshon; beginning of the 1948 Palestinian exodus.
- April 7– The World Health Organization is established by the United Nations.
- April 9
- April 13 – The Hadassah medical convoy massacre takes place in British Mandatory Palestine.
- April 16 – The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is founded as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC).
- April 18 – Italian general election, 1948:: The first democratic general election with universal suffrage is held in Italy. The Christian Democracy party achieves a majority over the Popular Democratic Front Communist-Socialist coalition.
- April 19
- April 22
- April 24 – The Costa Rican Civil War ends.
- April 30 – Organization of American States (OAS) founded.
- April 30 – The English-built Land Rover is unveiled at the Amsterdam Motor Show.
- May – The RAND Corporation is established as an independent nonprofit policy research and analysis institution in the United States.
- May 4 – Laurence Olivier's film version of Hamlet makes its world premiere in London.
- May 11 – Luigi Einaudi becomes President of the Italian Republic.
- May 14 – The Israeli Declaration of Independence is made. David Ben-Gurion becomes the first prime minister, a provisional position that will become formalized on February 14, 1949.
- May 15
- 1948 Arab–Israeli War: The British Mandate of Palestine is officially terminated; expeditionary forces from Egypt, Transjordan, Syria and Iraq invade Israel and clash with Israeli forces.
- The murder of a 3-year-old girl in Blackburn, England, leads to the fingerprinting of more than 40,000 men in the city in an attempt to find the murderer.
- Australian cricket team in England in 1948: The touring Australians set an all-time first-class record by scoring 721 runs in a day against Essex.
- May 16 – Chaim Weizmann is elected as the first President of Israel.
- May 18 – The first Legislative Yuan of the Republic of China officially convenes in Nanking.
- May 22 – The Soviets launch Operation Vesna, the largest Lithuanian deportation to Siberia.
- May 25 – The United Church of Christ in the Philippines (UCCP) is founded at Ellinwood Malate Church in Manila.
- May 26 – The United States Congress passes Public Law 557, which permanently establishes the Civil Air Patrol as the auxiliary of the United States Air Force.
- May 28 – Daniel François Malan defeats Jan Smuts and becomes Prime Minister of South Africa, ushering in the era of apartheid, which is finally dismantled by F. W. de Klerk in 1994.
- May 30 – A dike along the Columbia River breaks, obliterating Vanport, Oregon, within minutes; 15 people die and tens of thousands are left homeless.
- June 3 – The Palomar Observatory telescope is finished in California.
- June 10 – Hasan Saka forms the new government of Turkey. (17th government; Hasan Saka had served twice as a prime minister)
- June 11 – The first monkey astronaut, Albert I, is launched into space from White Sands, New Mexico.
- June 15 – Chinese newspaper, Renmin Ribao (People's Daily), a first issue of published in Pingshan, Hebei Province, China.
- June 16
- June 17 – A Douglas DC-6 carrying United Airlines Flight 624 crashes near Mount Carmel, Pennsylvania, killing all 43 people on board.
- June 18
- June 20 – The U.S. Congress recesses for the remainder of 1948, after an overtime session closes at 7:00 a.m. (to be shortly interrupted by Truman's recall from Congressional recess for July 20, 1948).
- June 21
- June 22
- The ship HMT Empire Windrush brings a large group of Afro-Caribbean immigrants to Tilbury near London, the start of a large wave of immigration to Britain.
- David Lean's Oliver Twist, based on Charles Dickens's famous novel, premieres in the UK. It is banned for 3 years in the U.S. because of alleged antisemitism in depicting master criminal Fagin, played by Alec Guinness.
- June 24
- June 26
- June 28
- July 5 – The National Health Service Acts are enacted in United Kingdom.
- July 6 – The world's first Air Car-ferry service is flown by a Bristol Freighter of Silver City Airways from Lympne to Le Touquet.
- July 13 – The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria and Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Churches reach an agreement leading to the promotion of the Ethiopian church to the rank of an autocephalous Patriarchate. Five bishops are immediately consecrated by the Patriarch of Alexandria, and the successor to Abuna Qerellos IV is granted the power to consecrate new bishops, who are empowered to elect a new Patriarch for their church.
- July 15
- July 20 – Cold War:
- President Harry S. Truman issues the second peacetime military draft in the United States, amid increasing tensions with the Soviet Union (the first peacetime draft occurred in 1940 under President Roosevelt)
- Eugene Dennis, William Z. Foster, and ten other CPUSA leaders are arrested and charged under the Alien Registration Act
- July 22 – The Dominion of Newfoundland votes to join Canada after a referendum.
- July 26 – U.S. President Truman signs Executive Order 9981, ending racial segregation in the United States Armed Forces.
- July 28 – Around 200 die in explosion at a chemical plant in Ludwigshafen, Germany.
- July 29 – The 1948 Summer Olympics begin in London, the first since the 1936 Summer Olympics
- July 31
- August 1 – The U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations is founded.
- August 3 – Whittaker Chambers appears under subpoena before HUAC and alleges that several former U.S. Federal official were communists, including Harry Dexter White and Alger Hiss
- August 5 – Alger Hiss appears before HUAC to deny the allegations of Whittaker Chambers
- August 10 – August 23 – The Herrenchiemsee Convent prepares the draft for the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany
- August 12 – Babrra massacre: About 600 unarmed members of the Khudai Khidmatgar movement were shot dead on the orders of the Chief Minister of the North-West Frontier Province, Abdul Qayyum Khan Kashmiri, on Babrra ground in the Hashtnagar region of Charsadda District, North-West Frontier Province (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Pakistan.
- August 13 – Harry Dexter White and Donald Hiss refute allegations of Communism by Whittaker Chambers before HUAC.
- August 14 – 1948 Ashes series: The Australian batsman Don Bradman, playing his last Test cricket match, against England at The Oval, is bowled by Eric Hollies for a duck; however, "The Invincibles" win the match by an innings and 149 runs, and The Ashes 4-0.
- August 15 – The southern half of Korea is established as the Republic of Korea (South Korea).
- August 17 – HUAC holds a private session between Alger Hiss and Whittaker Chambers
- August 18 – Danube Commission created by Belgrade Convention (enters into force 11 May 1949).
- August 20 – Lee Pressman, Nathan Witt, and John Abt, represented by Harold I. Cammer, plead the Fifth Amendment in response to allegations of Communism by Whittaker Chambers before HUAC
- August 23 – The World Council of Churches is established.
- August 24 – The first meeting of the charter members of the American Chamber of Commerce in Japan (ACCJ) is held.
- August 25 – HUAC holds its first-ever televised congressional hearing, featuring "Confrontation Day" between Whittaker Chambers and Alger Hiss
- August 27 – Whittaker Chambers states that Alger Hiss was a communist on Meet the Press radio
- September 4 – Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands abdicates for health reasons.
- September 5 – Robert Schuman becomes Prime Minister of France.
- September 6 – Juliana is formally inaugurated to succeed her mother as queen regnant of the Netherlands.
- September 9 – The northern half of Korea is formally declared the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), with Kim Il-sung as prime minister.
- September 11 – Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder and first Governor-General of Pakistan, dies. Pakistan is in a state of shock as it mourns the departure of the father of the nation. The day is a public holiday nationwide.
- September 13–18 – Indian annexation of Hyderabad ("Operation Polo"): The princely state of Hyderabad is invaded by the Indian Armed Forces in a "police action" in the aftermath of Pakistani leader Jinnah's death. The Nizam of Hyderabad surrenders his state which is amalgamated into the newly-independent Dominion of India; thousands are killed as a result of this event.
- September 13 – Margaret Chase Smith is elected United States Senator, and becomes the first woman to serve in both the U.S. House Of Representatives and the United States Senate.
- September 17 – Lehi members, also known as the Stern Gang, assassinate Swedish count Folke Bernadotte, United Nations Mediator in Palestine, in Jerusalem.
- September 18 – Inaugural motor race at Goodwood Circuit, West Sussex, England.
- September 20 – Establishment of the city of Rabwah in Pakistan.
- September 27 – Alger Hiss files a slander suit against Whittaker Chambers for his August 27 radio statement in the United States.
- September 29 – Laurence Olivier's film of Hamlet opens in the US.
- October 6 – The 7.3 Ms Ashgabat earthquake kills 10,000–110,000.
- October 10 – R-1 missile on test becomes the first Soviet launch to enter space.
- October 16 – The 57th Street Art Fair, the oldest juried art fair in the American Midwest, is founded.
- October 20 – Brandeis University is formally founded in Massachusetts, US.
- October 26 – Killer smog settles into Donora, Pennsylvania.
- October 28 – The Al-Dawayima massacre begins.
- November 1
- November 2 – United States presidential election, 1948: Democratic incumbent Harry S. Truman defeats Republican Thomas E. Dewey and "Dixiecrat" Strom Thurmond.
- November 12 – In Tokyo, an international war crimes tribunal sentences seven Japanese military and government officials to death, including General Hideki Tojo, for their roles in World War II.
- November 15 – Louis Stephen St. Laurent becomes Canada's 12th prime minister.
- November 16
- November 17
- November 20 – Geoffrey B. Orbell rediscovers the Takahē, last seen 50 years previously, near Lake Te Anau, New Zealand.
- November 24 – In Venezuela, president Rómulo Gallegos is ousted by a military junta.
- November 27 – The Calgary Stampeders defeat the Ottawa Rough Riders 12–7 before 20,013 fans at Toronto's Varsity Stadium to win their first Grey Cup and complete the only perfect season to date in Canadian Football.
- December 1 – José Figueres Ferrer abolishes the army in Costa Rica, making it the first country in history to do so.
- December 2 – The United States House Un-American Activities Committee subpoenas and retrieves the "Pumpkin Papers" from the farm of Whittaker Chambers.
- December 6 – Richard Nixon displays microfilm from the "Pumpkin Papers" to the press.
- December 9 – The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Genocide Convention.
- December 10 – The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
- December 11–12 – Malayan Emergency: Batang Kali massacre: Scots Guards shoot 24 Chinese villagers in Malaya.
- December 15 – The United States Department of Justice indicts Alger Hiss on two counts of perjury.
- December 17 – The Finnish Security Police is established to remove communist leadership from its predecessor, the State Police.
- December 19 – In the American National Football League, the Philadelphia Eagles defeat the Chicago Cardinals 7–0 to win the championship.
- December 20
- December 23 – Seven Japanese military and political leaders convicted of war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East are executed by Allied occupation authorities at Sugamo Prison in Tokyo, Japan.
- December 26
- December 28 – A Muslim Brotherhood member assassinates Egyptian Prime Minister Mahmud Fahmi Nokrashi.
- December 30 – The musical Kiss Me, Kate opens for the first of 1,077 performances in New York City.
- December 31 – Arab-Israeli War: Israeli troops drive Egyptians from the Negev.
- Casimir effect predicted by Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir.
- The Fresh Kills Landfill, the world's largest, opens on Staten Island, New York.
- The Oakridge Transit Centre opens in Vancouver, British Columbia.
- The Slovak city Gúta is renamed Kolárovo.
- The Tunnel of Vielha is opened in the Aran Valley, Spanish Pyrenees.
- Last recorded sighting of the Caspian tiger in Kazakhstan.
- A pack of wolves kills about 40 children in Darovskoy District, in Russia.
- Charles Warrell creates the first I-Spy books in the United Kingdom.
- Rev. W. Awdry's third book, James the Red Engine, is published in the United Kingdom.
- Last edition of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum is published in the Vatican.
- Inspired by World War II fighter planes, Cadillac introduces the first automobile to sport tailfins.
- The inaugural 6 Hours of Watkins Glen sports car endurance race is held in the United States.
- January 2
- January 5
- January 7
- January 10
- January 11
- January 12
- January 14
- January 15 – Ronnie Van Zant, American rock musician (d. 1977)
- January 16
- January 17 – Davíð Oddsson, Prime Minister of Iceland
- January 18 – M. C. Gainey, American actor
- January 19
- January 23
- January 27 – Mikhail Baryshnikov, Russian dancer
- January 28 – Charles Taylor, Liberian politician, 22nd President of Liberia
- January 29 – Marc Singer, Canadian actor
- January 30 – Paul Magee, Provisional Irish Republican Army member
- January 31
- February 1 – Rick James, American Motown performer (d. 2004)
- February 2
- February 3
- February 4
- February 5
- February 9 – David Hayman, Scottish film, television and stage actor and director
- February 10
- February 11 – Chris Rush, American stand-up comedian
- February 12 – Raymond Kurzweil, American inventor and author
- February 13 – Kitten Natividad, Mexican-American film actress
- February 14
- February 17
- February 18 – Sinéad Cusack, Irish actress
- February 19
- February 20 – Jennifer O'Neill, American model and actress
- February 22
- February 24
- February 25 – Danny Denzongpa, Indian actor
- February 28
- Steven Chu, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
- Mike Figgis, American director, screenwriter and composer
- Kjell Isaksson, Swedish pole vaulter
- Bernadette Peters, American actress and singer
- Mercedes Ruehl, American actress
- Alfred Sant, Leader of Malta Labour Party (1992–) and Prime Minister of Malta (1996–1998)
- February 29
- March 2
- March 4
- March 5
- March 6 – Anna Maria Horsford, American actress
- March 9
- March 11 – Dominique Sanda, French actress
- March 12 – James Taylor, American singer-songwriter
- March 14 – Billy Crystal, American actor and comedian
- March 15 – Sérgio Vieira de Mello, Brazilian diplomat (d. 2003)
- March 17 – William Gibson, American/Canadian writer
- March 20
- March 22
- March 25 – Bonnie Bedelia, American actress
- March 26
- March 28
- March 29
- March 30 – Eddie Jordan, Irish founder of Jordan Grand Prix
- March 31
- April 1 – Jimmy Cliff, Jamaican singer and actor
- April 2
- April 3 – Carlos Salinas de Gortari, Mexican economist and politician and 53rd President of Mexico
- April 4
- April 5 – Neil Portnow, President of The Recording Academy (NARAS).
- April 7 – John Oates, American rock singer and guitarist (Hall & Oates)
- April 12
- April 13
- April 15 – Michael Kamen, American composer (d. 2003)
- April 16
- April 17
- April 21 – Josef Flammer, Swiss ophthalmologist (after whom Flammer syndrome is named)
- April 27
- April 28
- April 29 – Michael Karoli, German musician (d. 2001)
- May 2
- May 3
- May 4
- May 5
- May 8
- May 9
- May 11 – Shigeru Izumiya, Japanese musician
- May 12
- May 14 – Bob Woolmer, Indian-born English cricket coach (d. 2007)
- May 15
- May 16 – Jesper Christensen, Danish actor
- May 18 – Mikko Heiniö, Finnish composer
- May 19 – Grace Jones, Jamaican singer and actress
- May 20 – Tesshō Genda, Japanese voice actor
- May 21
- May 25 – Klaus Meine, German singer (Scorpions)
- May 26
- May 27 – Wubbo de Boer, Dutch civil servant
- May 29 – Michael Berkeley, English composer
- May 31
- June 1
- June 2 – Jerry Mathers, American actor
- June 4
- June 6 – Richard Sinclair, English musician (Caravan)
- June 8
- June 9
- June 11 – Dave Cash, American baseball player
- June 13 – Garnet Bailey, Canadian hockey player and scout (d. 2001)
- June 14 – Laurence Yep, American author
- June 15 – Paul Michiels, Belgian singer-songwriter
- June 17 – Dave Concepción, Venezuelan baseball player
- June 19
- June 20
- June 21
- June 22
- Madeleine Meilleur, Canadian politician
- Takashi Sasano, Japanese actor
- Shōhaku Okumura, Japanese Soto Zen
- Peter Prijdekker, Dutch swimmer
- Sue Roberts, American professional golfer
- Todd Rundgren, American rock singer and record producer
- Curtis Johnson, American football cornerback
- Franciszek Smuda, Polish football coach
- Panagiotis Xanthakos, Greek sports shoote
- Colin Waldron, English football defender
- June 23
- Larry Coker, American football player and coach
- Jim Heacock, American defensive coordinator
- Luther Kent, American blues singer
- Clarence Thomas, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
- June 24
- June 25
- June 26
- June 27
- June 28
- June 29
- June 30
- July 1
- July 2
- July 3 – Tarmo Koivisto, Finnish comics artist
- July 4
- July 5
- July 6
- Nathalie Baye, French film, television and stage actress
- Jeff Webb, American professional basketball player
- Bob Riley, American professional basketball player
- Brad Park, Canadian NHL Defenseman
- Sid Smith, American football offensive lineman
- Eiko Segawa, Japanese female enka singer and actress
- Jan van der Veen, Dutch professional association football player
- July 7
- July 8 – Raffi, Egyptian-born children's entertainer
- July 10
- July 12
- July 13
- July 14 – Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu, Zulu king
- July 15 – Richard Franklin, Australian film director (d. 2007)
- July 16
- July 17
- July 18 – Hartmut Michel, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
- July 20
- July 21
- Beppe Grillo, Italian activist, blogger, comedian and actor
- Ed Hinton, American sportswriter
- Cat Stevens, born Steven Georgiou, later known as Yusuf Islam, British singer, musician
- Garry Trudeau, American cartoonist
- Teruzane Utada, Japanese music executive producer and attendant
- Mikhail Zadornov, Russian stand-up comedian and writer
- Snooty, male Florida manatee (d. 2017)
- July 22
- July 23 – John Cushnahan, Northern Irish politician
- July 25
- July 27 – Peggy Fleming, American figure skater
- July 28
- July 30
- July 31 – Jonathan Dollimore, English academic sociologist and cultural theorist
- August 1 – Jim Carroll, American author, poet and musician (d. 2009)
- August 2
- August 3 – Jean-Pierre Raffarin, Prime Minister of France
- August 12 – Mizengo Pinda, 9th Prime Minister of Tanzania
- August 13 – Kathleen Battle, American soprano
- August 14 – Joseph Marcell, English actor
- August 15 – George Ryton, Singapore-born English Formula One engineer
- August 18 – Sean Scanlan, Scottish actor (d. 2017)
- August 19
- August 20
- August 23 – Lev Zeleny, Soviet and Russian physicist
- August 24
- August 25 – Tony Ramos, Brazilian actor
- August 27 – Sgt. Slaughter, American professional wrestler
- August 30
- August 31
- September 1 – James Rebhorn, American actor (d. 2014)
- September 2
- September 3
- September 4
- September 5 – Benita Ferrero-Waldner, Austrian diplomat and politician
- September 7 – Susan Blakely, American actress
- September 8 – Great Kabuki, Japanese professional wrestler
- September 10
- September 11 – John Martyn, born Iain McGeachy, British folk-rock guitarist (d. 2009)
- September 13
- September 16 – Ron Blair, American bassist (Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers)
- September 17 – John Ritter, American actor (d. 2003)
- September 19
- September 20
- September 22
- September 23 – José Lavat, Mexican voice actor (d. 2018)
- September 24 – Phil Hartman, Canadian actor and comedian (d. 1998)
- September 25
- September 26
- September 27
- September 29
- October 1 – Sir Peter Blake, New Zealand yachtsman (k. 2001)
- October 2
- October 4
- October 6 – Gerry Adams, Northern Irish politician
- October 7
- October 8
- October 9
- October 11 – Cynthia Clawson, American gospel singer
- October 13
- October 14
- October 15
- October 16 – Leo Mazzone, American baseball coach
- October 17
- October 18 – Hans Köchler, Austrian philosopher
- October 19 – Patrick Simmons, American musician (The Doobie Brothers)
- October 21
- October 22 – Lynette Fromme, American attempted assassin of Gerald Ford
- October 23 – Sir Gerry Robinson, Irish-born British businessman
- October 25
- October 26 – Toby Harrah, American baseball player
- October 28 – Telma Hopkins, American actress and singer
- October 29 – Kate Jackson, American actress
- October 30 – Garry McDonald, Australian actor, satirist, and comedian
- November 1 – Anna Stuart, American actress
- November 3 – Lulu, born Marie McDonald McLaughlin Lawrie, Scottish singer and actress
- November 4
- November 5
- November 6 – Glenn Frey, American guitarist and singer (The Eagles) (d. 2016)
- November 7 – Jim Houghton, American actor and director
- November 9 – Luiz Felipe Scolari, Brazilian football player and manager
- November 10 – Vincent Schiavelli, American actor (d. 2005)
- November 12
- November 13
- November 14
- November 15 – James Kemsley, Australian cartoonist and actor (d. 2007)
- November 16
- November 17 – Howard Dean, American politician
- November 19 – Rance Allen, American gospel singer and preacher
- November 20
- November 21 – Michel Suleiman, President of Lebanon
- November 23
- November 24 – Joe Howard, American actor
- November 26 – Elizabeth Blackburn, Australian-American biologist and winner of Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- November 27 – James Avery, American actor (d. 2013)
- November 28 – Agnieszka Holland, Polish director and screenwriter
- December 2
- December 3
- December 6
- December 7
- December 10 – Abu Abbas, founder of the Palestine Liberation Front (d. 2004)
- December 11 – Chester Thompson, American rock drummer
- December 12 – Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, 20th President of Portugal
- December 13
- December 14
- December 19 – Ken Brown, Canadian ice hockey player
- December 20 – Alan Parsons, English songwriter, musician and record producer
- December 21
- December 22
- December 23 – Jim Ferguson, American guitarist, composer, educator, author and music journalist
- December 25
- December 27
- December 28
- December 29 – Peter Robinson, Northern Ireland First Minister
- December 31
- Archana Bhattacharyya, Indian physicist
- Miguel Cabrera Cabrera, Spanish architect and politician
- Vicatan, born Vicente Doria Catan Jr., Filipino comic book artist (d. 2004)
- Gudo Hoegel, German actor and voice actor
- Phalon Jones, American soul music and rhythm and blues musician (d. 1967)
- John Blair Moore, American comic book artist
- Johnny Nicholas, American blues musician
- Judy Nylon, American artist and musician
- Edward Rutherfurd, born Francis Edward Wintle, English novelist
- January 1 – Edna May, American actress (b. 1878)
- January 2 – Vicente Huidobro, Chilean poet (b. 1893)
- January 4 – Anna Kallina, Austrian actress (b. 1874)
- January 5 – Mary Dimmick Harrison, wife of President Benjamin Harrison (b. 1858)
- January 7
- January 8
- January 19 – Tony Garnier, French architect (b. 1869)
- January 21
- January 24
- January 26 – Georg Bruchmüller, influential German artillery officer (b. 1863)
- January 28 – Anna Maria Gove, American physician (b. 1867)
- January 29 – King Tomislav II of Croatia (b. 1900)
- January 30
- Nigel De Brulier, British actor (b. 1877)
- Arthur Coningham, British air force air marshal (disappeared) (b. 1895)
- Mahatma Gandhi, Leader of Indian independence movement, (assassinated) (b. 1869)
- Herb Pennock, American baseball player (New York Yankees) and a member of the MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1894)
- Orville Wright, American co-inventor of the airplane (b. 1871)
- January 31 – John T. Daniels, American Coast Guardsman, took the Wright brothers first flight photograph (b. 1873)
- February 1 – Jatindramohan Bagchi, Indian (Bengali) poet (b. 1878)
- February 2 – Bevil Rudd, South African athlete (b. 1894)
- February 4 – Otto Praeger, American postal official who implemented U.S. Airmail (b. 1871)
- February 9
- February 11
- February 12 – Theodor Caspari, Norwegian poet, novelist, writer, literary critic and teacher (b. 1853)
- February 14 – Mordecai Brown, American baseball player (Chicago Cubs) and a member of the MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1876)
- February 15 – Subhadra Kumari Chauhan, Indian poet (b. 1904)
- February 17 – Enrique Finochietto, Argentine academic, physician and inventor (b. 1881)
- February 18 – Renato Balestrero, Italian racecar driver (b. 1898)
- February 23 – John Robert Gregg, Irish-born inventor of shorthand (b. 1866)
- February 25
- Alfredo Baldomir, Uruguayan politician, soldier and architect, 27th President of Uruguay, leader of World War II (b. 1884)
- Alexander du Toit, South African geologist (b. 1878)
- Felix Krueger, German psychologist (b. 1874)
- Juan Esteban Montero, Chilean political figure and 20th President of Chile (b. 1879)
- February 27
- February 28 – Camila Quiroga, Argentine actress (b. 1891)
- March 1 – Gabriel Brunet de Sairigné, French general (b. 1913)
- March 4 – Antonin Artaud, French playwright, actor and director (b. 1896)
- March 6 – Ross Lockridge, Jr., American novelist (suicide) (b. 1914)
- March 8 – Piero Folli, Italian Roman Catholic priest and blessed (b. 1881)
- March 10
- March 14
- March 17 – Paul Dupuy, French historian and biographer (b. 1856)
- March 23 – Kōzō Satō, Japanese admiral (b. 1871)
- March 24
- March 30 – Giovanni Ceirano, Italian industrialist and automotive pioneer (b. 1865)
- March 31 – Egon Erwin Kisch, Austrian journalist and author (b. 1885)
- April 2
- April 5 – Angelo Joseph Rossi, American political figure and Mayor of San Francisco (b. 1878)
- April 7 – Isabel Andreu de Aguilar, Puerto Rican writer, educator, philanthropist and activist (b. 1887)
- April 8 – Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Palestinian Arab nationalist (b. 1907)
- April 9
- April 15 – Manuel Roxas, Filipino statesman, 5th President of the Philippines (b. 1892)
- April 17 – Kantarō Suzuki, Japanese admiral, 42nd Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1868)
- April 19 – Mikhail Rostovtsev, Soviet actor (b. 1872)
- April 20 – Mitsumasa Yonai, Japanese admiral and politician, 37th Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1880)
- April 21 – Carlos López Buchardo, Argentine composer (b. 1881)
- April 22 – Prosper Montagné, French chef and author (b. 1865)
- April 23 – Prince Albrecht of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (b. 1863)
- April 24 – Manuel Ponce, Mexican composer (b. 1882)
- April 25 – Gerardo Matos Rodriguez, Uruguayan composer, journalist and pianist (b. 1897)
- April 30 – Alfredo Miguel Aguayo Sánchez, Puerto Rican educator and writer (b. 1866)
- May 2 – Ángel Maria Herrera, Panamanian educator (b. 1859)
- May 3 – Ernst Tandefelt, Finnish nobleman, assassin of Minister Ritavuori (b. 1876)
- May 9
- May 13
- May 15
- May 16 – Muhammad Habibullah, Indian politician (b. 1869)
- May 18 – Francisco Alonso, Spanish composer (b. 1887)
- May 19 – Maximilian Lenz, Austrian painter and sculptor (b. 1860)
- May 21 – Jacques Feyder, French filmmaker (b. 1885)
- May 22 – Claude McKay, Jamaican-born American writer and poet (b. 1889)
- May 26 – Émile Gaston Chassinat, French egyptologist (b. 1868)
- May 28 – Unity Mitford, British socialite; friend of Adolf Hitler (b. 1914)
- May 29 – Dame May Whitty, British actress (b. 1865)
- May 30 – József Klekl, Slovene politician in Hungary (b. 1874)
- June 1 – José Vianna da Motta, Portuguese pianist, teacher and composer (b. 1868)
- June 2 – Viktor Brack, German doctor (b. 1904), executed by hanging for warcrimes
- June 6 – Louis Lumière, French film pioneer (b. 1864)
- June 8 – Giacomo Albanese, Italian mathematician (b. 1890)
- June 13 – Osamu Dazai, Japanese writer (b. 1909)
- June 16 – Eugênia Álvaro Moreyra, Brazilian journalist, actress and director (b. 1898)
- June 25
- June 26
- June 30 – Prince Sabahaddin (b. 1879)
- July 1 – Assunta Marchetti, Italian Roman Catholic religious professed and blessed
- July 4
- July 5
- July 9
- July 11
- July 14
- July 15 – John J. Pershing, American general (b. 1860)
- July 17 – Ildebrando Zacchini, Maltese painter, inventor and traveller (b. 1868)
- July 18
- July 21 – Arshile Gorky, Soviet-born painter (b. 1904)
- July 22 – Sud Mennucci, Brazilian journalist and educator (b. 1882)
- July 23 – D. W. Griffith, American film director (The Birth Of A Nation) (b. 1875)
- July 24 – Pencho Zlatev, Bulgarian general, 25th Prime Minister of Bulgaria (b. 1881)
- July 26 – Antonin Sertillanges, French Catholic philosopher and spiritual writer (b. 1863)
- July 27 – Joe Tinker, American baseball player (Chicago Cubs) and a member of the MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1880)
- July 28 – Susan Glaspell, American playwright (b. 1882)
- July 31 – Lucy Mercer Rutherfurd, mistress of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (b. 1891)
- August 3 – Tommy Ryan, American boxing champion (b. 1870)
- August 7 – Charles Bryant, American actor (b. 1948)
- August 10
- August 13 – Edwin Maxwell, Irish actor (b. 1886)
- August 16 – Babe Ruth, American baseball player (New York Yankees) and a member of the MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1895)
- August 17 – Mariette Rheiner Garner, Second Lady of the United States (b. 1869)
- August 18 – Mikhail Tarkhanov, Soviet actor (b. 1877)
- August 26 – George Anderson, American actor (b. 1886)
- August 27
- September 1 – Muhammad VII al-Munsif, ruler of Tunisia 1942–43 (b. 1881)
- September 2 – Sylvanus G. Morley, American scholar and World War I spy (b. 1883)
- September 3 – Edvard Beneš, Czechoslovakian politician, 4th Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia and 2-time President of Czechoslovakia (b. 1884)
- September 5 – Richard C. Tolman, American mathematical physicist (b. 1881)
- September 7 – André Suarès, French poet and critic (b. 1868)
- September 10 – Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, Tsar of Bulgaria (b. 1861)
- September 11 – Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder and first Governor General of Pakistan (b. 1876)
- September 12
- September 13 – Paul Wegener, German actor, film director, and screenwriter; one of the pioneers of German Expressionism (b. 1874)
- September 17
- September 20 – Husain Salaahuddin, Famous Mahl writer (b. 1881)
- September 22 – Prince Adalbert of Prussia (b. 1884)
- September 24 – Warren William, American actor (b. 1894)
- September 25 – Toyoaki Horiuchi, Japanese general (b. 1900)
- September 26 – Gregg Toland, American cinematographer (b. 1904)
- September 27 – Frank Cellier, British actor (b. 1884)
- September 30
- October 1 – Phraya Manopakorn Nititada, 1st Prime Minister of Siam (b. 1884)
- October 2 – Mary Ryan, American actress (b. 1885)
- October 4 – Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah, Pakistani politician (b. 1879)
- October 5 – Umberto Coromaldi, Italian painter (b. 1870)
- October 10 – Saif Ali Janjua, Pakistani commander (b. 1922)
- October 12
- October 13 – Samuel S. Hinds, American actor (b. 1875)
- October 14 – Dale Fuller, American actress (b. 1885)
- October 15 – Edythe Chapman, American actress (b. 1863)
- October 16 – Maria Olga de Moraes Sarmento da Silveira, Portuguese feminist and writer (b. 1881)
- October 18 – Walther von Brauchitsch, German field marshal (b. 1881)
- October 19 – Mehmet Suphi Kula, Turkish general (b. 1881)
- October 21 – Elissa Landi, Italian actress (b. 1904)
- October 22
- October 24
- October 31 – Mary Nolan, American actress (b. 1905)
- November 4
- November 7 – David Leland, American actor (b. 1932)
- November 8 – Archduke Peter Ferdinand of Austria (b. 1874)
- November 9 – Edgar Kennedy, American actor (b. 1890)
- November 10
- November 11 – Fred Niblo, American film director (b. 1874)
- November 12 – Umberto Giordano, Italian composer (b. 1867)
- November 17 – Oerip Soemohardjo, Indonesian general (b. 1893)
- November 21 – Béla Miklós, Hungarian military officer and politician, 38th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1890)
- November 23 – Hack Wilson, American baseball player (Chicago Cubs) and a member of the MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1900)
- November 28 – D. D. Sheehan, Irish politician (b. 1873)
- November 29
- November 30 – Franco Vittadini, Italian composer (b. 1884)
- December 3
- December 8 – Matthew Charlton, Australian politician (b. 1866)
- December 15 – João Tamagnini Barbosa, Portuguese military officer and politician, 69th Prime Minister of Portugal (b. 1883)
- December 20 – C. Aubrey Smith, British actor (b. 1863)
- December 23 – Japanese war leaders (hanged):
- Kenji Doihara, general (b. 1883)
- Kōki Hirota, diplomat and politician, 32nd Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1878)
- Seishirō Itagaki, military officer (b. 1885)
- Heitarō Kimura, general (b. 1888)
- Iwane Matsui, general (b. 1878)
- Akira Mutō, general (b. 1892)
- Hideki Tojo, general, 40th Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1884)
- December 26 – John Westley, American actor (b. 1878)
- December 28
- December 29 – Guido Di Ruggiero, Italian philosopher, professor and politician (b. 1888)
- December 31 – Sir Malcolm Campbell, English land and water racer (b. 1885)
- Physics – Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett
- Chemistry – Arne Tiselius
- Medicine – Paul Hermann Müller
- Literature – T. S. Eliot
- Peace – not awarded
- Cabinet Memorandum by the Secretary of State for the Colonies (UK). 21 February 1956. Federation of Malaya Agreement
- Moore, Patrick (1995). The Guinness Book of Astronomy (5th ed.). Enfield, UK: Guinness Publishing. p. 110. ISBN 085112643X.
- "History of NASCAR". NASCAR. August 17, 2010. Archived from the original on May 30, 2015. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
- "Brampton's largest flood left its watery mark". The Brampton Guardian. 2008-03-10. Retrieved 2008-03-10.[dead link]
- Alpher, R. A.; Bethe, H.; Gamow, G. (April 1, 1948). "The Origin of Chemical Elements" (PDF). Physical Review. United States. 73 (7): 803–804. Bibcode:1948PhRv...73..803A. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.73.803. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 8, 2013. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- "A brutal murder begins an unusual investigation". HISTORY.com.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 17, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-19.
- Guinness Book of World Records. 2008. p. 137.